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Heroes and Shadows: Reading Resources

On Carl Jung's Shadow Archetype and Joseph Campbell's Hero Journey Monomyth

In What It Is Like to Go to War, writer Karl Marlantes examines the idea of the shadow, an archetype form advanced by Carl Jung. Marlantes also reflects on Joseph Campbell's studies regarding hero journeys. The information below is intended to help readers learn more in order to better understand Marlantes's narrative.

Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist, founder of analytical psychology

Joseph Campbell (1904-1987)
American mythologist and writer most famous for his Monomyth theory of shared mythologies

The Jungian Shadow

From Victor Daniels, Ph.D., professor emeritus of psychology at Sonoma State University:

Jung believed that a human being is inwardly whole, but that most of us have lost touch with important parts of our selves. Through listening to the messages of our dreams and waking imagination, we can contact and reintegrate our different parts. The goal of life is individuation, the process of coming to know, giving expression to, and harmonizing the various components of the psyche. If we realize our uniqueness, we can undertake a process of individuation and tap into our true self. Each human being has a specific nature and calling which is uniquely his or her own, and unless these are fulfilled through a union of conscious and unconscious, the person can become sick. […]

The Unconscious
A basic tenet: All products of the unconscious are symbolic and can be taken as guiding messages. What is the dream or fantasy leading the person toward? The unconscious will live, and will move us, whether we like it or not. […]

These primordial images reflect basic patterns or universal themes common to us all which are present in the unconscious. These symbolic images exist outside space and time. Examples: Shadow, animus, anima, the old wise person, the innocent child. There also seem to be nature archetypes, like fire, ocean, river, mountain.

The "mask" or image we present to the world. Designed to make a particular impression on others, while concealing our true nature.

The side of our personality which we do not conscousnly display in public. May have positive or negative qualities. If it remains unconscious, the shadow is often projected onto other individuals or groups.

More information: "Handout on Carl Gustav Jung" by Victor Daniels, Ph.D.

Joseph Campbell & The Hero's Journey

From Tamlorn Chase via Odyssey Online, Antioch University Santa Barbara:

In 1949, scholar Joseph Campbell published his first book, The Hero with a Thousand Faces. In this book, Campbell introduced us to his theory that myths from around the globe share a fundamental structure, the Monomyth. […] The Monomyth structure is divided into three events with additional stages in between:

Stage 1: Separation

1. Call to Adventure
2. Refusal of the Call
3. Supernatural Aid
4. Crossing the Threshold
5. Belly of the Whale

Stage 2: Initiation

6. The Road of Trials
7. The Meeting with the Goddess
8. Woman as Temptress
9. Atonement with the Father
10. Apotheosis
11. The Ultimate Boon
12. Refusal of the Return

Stage 3: Return

13. The Magic Flight
14. Rescue from Without
15. Crossing the Return Threshold
16. Master of Two Worlds
17. Freedom to Live

More information, including graphics, video, and explanatory examples: Joseph Campbell & The Hero's Journey by Tamlorn Chase, March 2016.