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Poster Abstracts

Friday, April 22 1 - 3PM - LBJSC 3-09.1.

Oral Presentations

Below is a list of poster abstracts that will be presented at this years Undergraduate Research Conference.

# Presenter Name Title of Poster Presentation Authors/Collaborators Abstract
1 Aguirre, Juan Rap through the new millennium, similar or different? Juan Aguirre Through the years, many millennials have thought that rap has evolved into a new genre that has sprouted into sub-genres, while other millennials say it has devolved and will never be as good as its prime days in the earlier decades. My presentation covers multiple aspects of popular rap music according to the billboard top rap songs of the years 2005 to 2015. Multiple lyrics and connotations of the rap songs will be analyzed to see if anything changed through the years or if the subjects stayed constant. My poster covers each year as a whole which shows key artists that contributed to the genre and evolution or devolution. On the poster, there will be multiple graphs and statistical analyze in which the elements that are reviewed will be compared through all the years to see if there is a correlation. This correlation will show the possible evolution or devolution of the rap genre from 2005 to 2015. With the data collected, I will analyze it and infer that it got better through the years, or if it in fact did devolve.
2 Al-Dhahi, Fatima (Toomi)  “The Blacker the Berry, the Sweeter the Juice”: Understanding the Power of Race in Hip-Hop Activism Fatima Al-Dhahi

Advisor: Dr. Rachel Romero 
Hip-hop is a genre of music that emerged among African-American communities in the 1970’s, and quickly took a political form to stand against racial oppression during the 1980’s. Today, political hip-hop exists as a subgenre of hip-hop that enables a safe, artistic outlet for marginalized groups to spread their word and create social change. This study employs a multimethod qualitative approach to discuss how political hip-hop music depicts narratives of racism and advocates against racial bigotry. Through content analysis, this study will examine depictions of racism in political hip-hop between white artists and artists of a disfranchised racial identity. In addition, this study will employ focus group interviews to explore how college students interpret the positions of these artists in the discussion of racism and political injustices.

The goal of this research is to better understand white allies within political hip-hop as a social movement. In today’s society a strong emphasizes on political correctness has created a system that limits discussions of social issues. Many people, in particular white-passing individuals, encounter difficulty being a part of critical conversations about social inequality because their majority status largely disqualifies them of a voice in highly conscious political environments. By gaining knowledge on the topic, this research aims to gain a stronger understanding of cross-cultural communication through popular culture to create social change.
3 Amdeen, Shahad  Experimental Identification of the Complete RNA-Binding Domain of the Human LARP6 Protein Shahad Adnan Amdeen, Jose Castro, Eleuterio L. Pena, Bisola Kayode-Williams, Karla Belen, Karen A. Lewis RNA constitutes one of three macromolecules that are essential for all forms of life. Folding of RNAs into complex three-dimensional structure is required for proper function, including successful gene expression. RNA-binding proteins can assist the folding of an RNA molecule, or bind to RNA to regulate that RNA. The La module superfamily are RNA-binding proteins that share a “La Motif” (LaM), a highly conserved 90 amino acid sequence, and an “RNA Recognition Motif” (RRM). The LARP6 subfamily is found among eukaryotes from plants to humans. LARP6 binds a 5’ stem-loop structure, which distinguishes it from other members of the La superfamily. Previous assays showed significantly lower strand annealing activity of HsLARP La modules when the HsLARP6(74-313) sequence was compared to HsLARP6(74-295). A second study observed a two-fold increase in RNA binding activity for HsLARP(74-313) in comparison to HsLARP6(70-300). Therefore, these results indicate the need for well-defined boundaries for the La module in HsLARP6. To directly test the role of the C-terminus of the RRM in RNA binding activity, we are comparing the binding activities of HsLARP6(70-300) and HsLARP6(70-313). The results of this study will lead to better understanding of how RNA binding proteins help facilitate the three dimensional structure of RNA and how this correlates to the functionality of the RNA molecule itself. These data will support to our laboratory’s overall goal to identify the specificity of LARP6 binding to RNA ligands in order to provide information regarding the regulation of gene expression through the highly important proper RNA folding.
4 Bafiba, Jospin  OutKast: Masculinely Feminine Jospin Bafiba As Hip-Hop reigned and was said to have been dominant and center source of popular music in the United States in the early 1980s, it stretched across the highland of the United States all the way from the West coast in California with artist like Tupac Shakur to New York in the East with THE Notorious B.I.G. However, there came a new sound out of what was expected to be the nonmusical region of U.S (United States) that would become prominent and create an era of its own: it was the rise of the Dirty South, more appropriately known as the popularization of rap of the southern region of the U.S. In the case of music history, the dirty south did contribute largely to hip-hop and current music types and flares, but in the case of a particular music group of the era, OutKast, as a focusing point in this history, the Dirty South may have redefined an important part of what rap was and is.  The image of rap for periods of time has changed and new things have been added, but one thing that may seem to prevail with each era is the stereotype of the masculinity that comes with it. Taking a look at OutKast, previous Hip-Hop artist that have come before, and artists that we have now, we can make comparisons and see just how Hip-Hop no longer retains the same image of what masculinity is and is defined as in a Hip-Hop popular culture. 
5 Barrett, Scott Poverty’s Influence on the Lyrics of 90’s Rappers Scott Barrett In the 1990s, rap became an influential part of America’s pop music for all races including Caucasians. Rap music exposed the impoverished lives in the artists’ lyrics. Researchers have analyzed the lyrics of rappers in the 1990s previously, but they have not dug deep into the upbringing of these artists that influenced these lyrics. Rap became an outlet to expose the childhood struggles in poverty-stricken portions of America, evident in the lyrics of top rap artists, such as Eminem, Big L, Notorious B.I.G., and Tupac. I am going to explore these lyrics and pinpoint the effects of poverty on lyricism.
6 Borrego, Dora  Perspectives on Purity and Perfection  Dora Borrego During the 18th century, among a number of novels that were published,  Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719) and Françoise De Graffigny’s Letters from a Peruvian Woman (1747) use the contrast of a native culture to describe, analyze and/or criticize their own culture and government. This time period explored the idea of expansion and domination of the New World; new cultures, religions and goods were introduced to European societies. While relations with the native tribes of the New World varied from country to country, they were all regarded as inferior to Europeans. These novels portray the cultural integration that resulted from the exploration of the New World. This project will contrast the European attitude of cultural superiority illustrated by Defoe with the viewpoint of a young native girl from Graffigny’s, Letters from a Peruvian Woman by highlighting that their attitude towards nature and religion is superior. Furthermore, Graffigny adopts a fictional “native” viewpoint to criticize European society, whereas Defoe’s protagonist is European and criticizes native American culture. Though on opposite ends of the integration, both protagonists are unwillingly separated from their cultures for the majority of the novel and give detailed accounts of their environment from a foreigner’s perspective.
7 Brunner, Devon  A Yoga Program for Cognitive Enhancement Main author: Devon Brunner

Co-author/research supervisor: Dr. Joe Etherton, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology
Background: Reduced attention may stunt academic or vocational achievement, heighten the risk of accident or injury, and increases the risk of substance abuse. Although pharmacotherapy elicits efficacy in reducing ADHD symptoms, those seeking treatment often experience adverse side effects from taking stimulants and may not have access to or benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy. There is a call for alternative psychosocial interventions to offer as an addition to current treatment options or as a standalone alternative.

Methods: In this present study, potential cognitive enhancement to (i) attention and (ii) working memory as a result of a 6-session yoga intervention (n=52) was assessed using (WAIS IV) Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing tests. Additionally, (iii) mindfulness was measured using the MAAS scale to examine any enhancements and the potential relationship between attention and mindfulness.

Results: Statistical analyses within-subjects effects and multivariate tests revealed significant improvement from pre (M = 25.14) to post (M = 27.07) assessment in Digit Span (p < 0.000) and pre (M = 17.67) to post (M = 19.38) Letter-Number Sequencing (p < 0.000) scores for the yoga mediators. However, mindfulness scores did not significantly improve, and a Pearson’s correlation revealed there was not a relationship between attention and mindfulness.

Limitations: Due to a restraint in resources a sufficient matched control group was unavailable, allocating result comparison to abundant literature on test-retest reliability standard scores for WAIS IV batteries.

Conclusions: A 6-session yoga intervention program revealed cognitive enhancements in attention and working memory. More research needs to be conducted to further understand the mechanisms of yoga augmenting cognitive function. Despite typical reports within the scientific literature, this yoga intervention did not significantly improve mindfulness. Participants reported stress and mood to affect mindfulness, suggesting that mindfulness may be less stable than previously thought. 
8 Cabading, Amber  A Peruvian Woman’s France: How Graffigny’s Representation of Nature is revealed through Art Amber Cabading In this paper I will discuss the representation of nature and the natural in Francoise de Graffigny’s Letters from a Peruvian Woman, and compare her representation to the French Rococo artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard and his painting The Swing as well as to  Jean-Simeon Chardin’s painting Grace at Table. With the first painting, I will compare how Rococo stylistic elements and themes highlight the corruption and superficial nature of the aristocracy in France just as Graffigny’s Zilia compares the perversion of French society to that of her virtuous and noble Incan society.  Graffigny’s epistolary novel creates a unique perspective to which her audience—the French population, question the nature of their society through an outsider’s lens creating an atmosphere that fosters debate for revolution. The retort of the French population to this criticism is exemplified through the second painting. A new art form emerged that dispelled the Rococo style that the aristocracy loved in favor of art that depicted themes of the noble simplicity of the rural peasant class and how duty and honor should rise above all else.  Graffigny’s novel contains these elements as she critiques her French culture while favoring the natural noble society of the Inca. Her comparison of the Incan civilization to that of the French culture and the ideas that are formed around it are revealed through these works of art. 
9 Campbell, Mary  Let the Good Times Roll: How Ray Charles Gaining Artistic Control Affected the Income of Black Musicians Mary Campbell When Ray Charles left Swing Time Records and was signed on to Atlantic Records in 1952, He was paid $2,500 and promised 3% on 90% of all record sales. Comparatively, the same year Atlantic Records bid $35,000 for the chance of signing Elvis Presley. This research project hopes to shine a light on the unequal pay of black recording artist compared to white recording artists in record sales, and how Ray Charles gaining artistic control helped equalize pay among artists of equal success. This will be done by researching the recording contracts of some of the most successful black artists whose main career was from 1950-1970, and attempting to determine if there is any correlation between the increase in these artists’ income from record sales and Ray Charles’ gaining artistic control. By finding the label contracts of these artists through out this time period, I can construct graphs which show their income over the 20 years. These graphs will allow me to determine if there is, or is not, any correlation. As of now, the research indicates that there was a significant increase of income from record sales in this time period. For example, Ray Charles 1st chart topper, “What’d I Say,” sold about a million records in 1959, which means Atlantic records made anywhere from 2.85 to 4.85million dollars, but Ray Charles only roughly saw 2.7% of that. However, in the mid-sixties, he was making approximately $1.8 million.
10 Cioffi, Timothy  Host-Plant Defense Against Root Gall Induction Principal Investigator: Timothy Cioffi. Faculty Advisor: Dr. James Ott. The ability of plant-feeding insects to induce the formation of a gall—a 3-dimensional structure composed of plant tissue but whose development is under genetic control of the insect—is a remarkable trait that has evolved independently in multiple insect orders. Larval insects feed and develop within galls while protected from the external environment and natural enemies. Growing galls are models of extended phenotypes (expression of animal genes inside host plant tissue) and plant cell proliferation. Live oak trees in central Texas, predominantly Quercus fusiformis, are galled by a diversity of insects including the gall wasp, Belonocnema treatae. This species forms galls on the expanding leaf buds and new root tissue of established live oak trees during fall and spring respectively. Whether galls can be established on oaks during earlier life stages (seedling trees, germinating acorns) is unknown. However, determining whether gall formation is possible on these tissues is a vital first step toward understanding the development of host plant defense and susceptibility to gall formers. This study will explore this void by examining the ability of B. treatae to induce galls on the actively growing roots of newly sprouted acorns and emergent seedlings of live oaks.
11 Cockrell, Morgan  Gender Equality in the State of Nature Morgan Cockrell  Historically woman have been seen to be unequal or of lesser value in comparison to men. Even today in post-modern times there are still inequalities to be dealt with. Hobbes and Locke’s depiction of the natural condition of man, specifically regarding woman, are in opposition to each other. The question is whether in the state of nature a woman is considered to be a man’s equal? Hobbes asserts that all men (this can be assumed he means mankind) are equal in the state of nature, so he implicitly includes women. Locke’s view differs in that women and men have different roles and purposes. These different roles leave men with a higher power over women although he does give women certain rights. Both Hobbes and Locke provide arguably logical reasoning for each of their particular views.  
12 Cox, Claire  Paul Simons Graceland  Claire Cox, honors student, African American Pop Culture class, Dr. Schuler Graceland was one of the most controversial albums by Paul Simon because of its connection to the apartheid. The apartheid is a policy on segregation or discrimination based on race. The album was censored from the South African government because they believed that Simon was supporting the regime. He took influence from the South African music and American Rock n’ Roll to create the Grammy award winning album. Simon worked alongside many South African singers bringing out their heritage, traditions, and history. The reason for Graceland‘s success are the skilled artists, the different genres, and its present is highly valued in the music market. Lastly another political reason why Graceland was so controversial to the public eye was because of inconsistencies in the co-crediting of musicians and difficulties to genuinely collaborate on a project within the restraints of the music industry.
13 Czajka, Elizabeth  Improving STEM Success in Chemistry Courses Through Study Skills and Metacognitive Awareness Elizabeth Czajka

Isaac Blythe

Dr. Cynthia Luxford
General and organic chemistry classes are often considered barrier classes for students wishing to pursue STEM related degrees and careers.  This study aims to identify factors which lead to student success in general and organic chemistry lecture classes.  Equipped with this information, lecturers will be able to identify issues, and help students succeed in these difficult courses.  Quantitative data is being collected in the form of a pre- and post-survey which focuses on student study habits and metacognitive skills.  The survey combines portions of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) survey, with the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MCAI), and a small section of demographic questions.  The pre- and post-survey responses will then be compared to ACS exam data, which tests student’s conceptual chemistry knowledge.  By comparing students study habits, and metacognitive skills to their individual conceptual understanding, we hope to be able to identify habits and skills which lead to success in these difficult courses.  Preliminary findings will be presented.
14 Day-Aleman, Scarlett  Death by Segregation: the politics and affect of Jim Crow  Scarlett Day-Aleman There is no doubt that segregation was a dark time for American history. Looking back on that time, even though it was over four decades ago, still makes me cringe. It is also such a dark time that it is hard to pick the worst consequence from it. After doing some research on the subject I have decided one of the worst consequences is the death of many people, including musicians, due to improper medical attention. In this paper I plan to shed light on the tragic death of Fats Waller, a jazz pianist that died in his prime. I also plan to explain how his death could have been prevented and explain the politics of the “Jim Crow” laws and how they affected musicians even if they didn’t kill them.  I plan to use already established research on Fats Waller and “Jim Crow” practices to back up and support my claim. I also plan on contacting people from Fats Waller’s website to see if I can use some information that may not be common knowledge.


Edwards, Frances L. "The Legal Creation Of Raced Space: The Subtle And Ongoing Discrimination Created Through Jim Crow Laws." Berkeley Journal Of African-American Law & Policy 12.(2010): 145. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews. Web. 26 Feb. 2016.

Hunkele, Kerri L. Segregation in United States Healthcare: From Reconstruction to Deluxe Jim Crow. UNH. University of New Hampshire, Mar.-Apr. 2014. Web. 26 Feb. 2016.
15 Duke, Joseph  Net Carbon Emissions of Wind and solar Generation and Electric Vehicles: Are They as Green as They Seem? Joseph Duke, Dr. Tongdan Jin Wind and solar energy are widely hailed as “free” and “clean” energy. Similarly, electric vehicles (EV) that run on batteries are considered to be much greener than their gasoline counterparts due to zero tailpipe emissions. But is it possible that the environmental benefits from new energy sources and transport technologies may be exaggerated? The goal of this research is to perform an emission analysis of the CO2 footprint on wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, and EV. Our goal is to weigh together the cost and benefits across the lifecycle of these new technologies.
16 Dunstatter, Noah The Odd Future of Millennial's Hip-Hop Music  Noah Dunstatter Hip-hop music has always been a source of contention for musical scholars and laymen alike.  Violent imagery, glorification of drug use, and objectification of women are but a few of the central themes found in contemporary mainstream hip-hop. Many have argued that these trends are molding hip-hop into the 21st century minstrel show, where members of the Black community willingly perpetuate negative and false stereotypes in the pursuit of wealth and fame. Beginning in the mid to late 90’s, hip-hop’s trend towards violence, drugs, and thuggery was set in motion and by the mid 2000’s hip-hop was considered to have left its golden age and entered into a new state of repetitive and shallow materialism. It was around this time that the Odd Future collective began to gain traction. Made up of middle-class suburban youth, Odd Future sought to break molds surrounding hip-hop. Some tracks embodied the current state of hip-hop with catchy lyrics about money, hoes, drugs, and violence. While others revealed a refreshing renewal of meaningful and well thought lyricism used to convey a clear message – something absent in most other contemporary hip-hop. This paper argues that Odd Future is a commonly misunderstood group of artists whose widespread misinterpretation provides an example of how hip-hop is commonly misunderstood to the point that it becomes detrimental to the culture as a whole. 
17 Durand, Ethan  The Differences and Similarities of Thomas Hobbes’ and John Locke’s State of Nature Ethan Durand An understanding of nature and the natural state of man has been a question of for ages. John Locke and Thomas Hobbes advance new theories regarding the state of nature in the late seventeenth century that argued that power and sovereignty were derived from man and not divine right which was the popular political though in Europe during the late Middle Ages. First, all individuals exist in a state of equality naturally and because of this it would cause the entire population to be in a never ending state of war since no one could overcome another. Second, individuals value most the idea of self-preservation and will attempt to secure themselves at any means necessary. Lastly, in order to ensure the escape from this natural state of war and to secure an individual’s own safety, it is imperative to submit to a sovereign. John Locke though makes it clear that the sovereign has a right to rule how he sees fit and citizens should be expected to submit. In contrast, Thomas Hobbes would argue that the people had a right to rebel should the sovereign become abusive. Both of these are new orientations concerning the state of nature that up until the time of these philosophers had not been explored or considered. I will show that Locke and Hobbes both agree on fundamental aspects of the state of nature, yet each hold contrasting views on the rights and role of a sovereign in the state of nature.
18 Dzubay, David IMPROVING PATIENT EXPERIENCE OF CARE IN ACUTE-CARE HOSPITALS David P. Dzubay, BS/ Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University

Eduardo Pérez, PhD/ Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University
The Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program (VBP) was established in 2010 with the purpose of enhancing the quality of care of Medicare patients. In addition to patient benefits, the VBP rewards acute-care hospitals with incentive payments based on how closely best clinical practices are followed. Therefore, it is imperative that research be directed towards improving a patient’s experience of care during hospital visits. This ongoing research focuses on the doctor and nurse interactions with the patients, which has shown potential to improve some of the metrics used to quantify patient experience of care. A scheduling optimization model is proposed to match nurses and hospitalists availability at the time of visiting patients. Preliminary data has shown that patients prefer to have both the doctor and nurse in the room at the time of consultation (rounds). In addition, this research developed a discrete-event simulation model to consider the system uncertainties that can affect the service provided to the patients at the hospital.
19 Fenton, Trixie  Man in the State of Nature in Robinson Crusoe and Leviathan Trixie Fenton Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan, 1651, and Daniel Defoe in Robinson Crusoe, 1719, describe man in a State of Nature. In Defoe’s novel, Crusoe’s experience with nature on the island closely resembles Hobbes’ theory of the State of Nature. After Robinson finds the footprint on the island where he has been stranded alone for many years, he is suddenly thrown into Hobbes’ theorized State of Nature. Hobbes asserts that the State of Nature is a condition of constant competition and chaos unless there is a sovereign to control things, and if there is no sovereign there is no way of knowing what is right or wrong. Defoe’s novel displays Hobbesian ideas of nature when Crusoe becomes fearful and later emerges as the sovereign of the society that forms on the island, but when Robinson Crusoe begins questioning whether or not his desire to murder the cannibals was moral while in the State of Nature, Crusoe’s state of nature no longer matches up with Hobbes’. This essay will show how Hobbes’ state of nature is depicted in Robinson Crusoe, and how Defoe’s state nature is also different. In particular, this analysis will be over how Crusoe was fearful once he entered the State of Nature, how he continued to want more, how he became sovereign, and how he questioned his own morality, which will all be compared to Hobbes’ own State of Nature. This analysis will help the reader better understand man in the State of Nature.
20 Fuentes, Jesus  Application of the Dynamic Simulation in Product Development Jesus Fuentes, Nicholas Hawkes, Dr. Bahram Asiabanpour The research conducted focuses on the optimization of an inventive apparatus design, that is centrifugal power-based, which transfers power with near-zero energy loss. This research explores the development of this design, to make it feasible for lifting systems, windmill and drilling machines. The goal is to improve the efficiency of the design, to minimize the cost, energy lose and complexity to manufacture the mechanism. As a result, dynamic simulation is being utilized to test the mechanisms behavior and to optimize the mechanism. In this article, the concept design’s idea, mechanical testing results and results generated from dynamic simulation are investigated.  
21 Gibson, Brayden Political Rap: From past to present Brayden Gibson Music was and still is one of the largest avenues for black inclusion in the United States. Their music tells the story of the minority and brings their issues to the forefront. One of the major African American genres that encourages political activism is political rap. These songs are used for political chants and as rallying cries when motivation is needed. I aim to explain political rap music, and its definition, as well as update past studies done on the genre. While analyses of rap music in general ended with music from the 1990s or the early 2000s, my goal is to bring new political rap, such as works by Kendrick Lamar and Kanye West, to the forefront of scholarly discussions. I aim to provide examples of political lyrics and establish their background and meaning. This aims to be a political analysis of the top albums of the last five years, to see how the political genre has changed since the last influx of scholarly discussions. A large amount of racially charged events have happened in recent years, such as the black lives matter movement as well as an influx of positive racial identity movements. I would like to cover the songs that are either rallying cries for the movements themselves or songs that bring a new way to look on the issues. This research is not just an analysis of the genre as a whole but an analysis of the genre in the present.
22 Goodman, Taylor  How African American Pop Music, Specifically Rap, is Shaping our Generation: Negative and Positive Impacts Nico Schüler  African American music is not a new phenomenon, in fact it has been around for several centuries. Something that is becoming increasingly important about this culture, is how it impacts our society, both negatively and positively. It is said that rap music gives individuals a way to freely express themselves and their emotions. It is also said that rap music causes violent tendencies in adolescents and causes more harm than good. My paper will be looking into both of these outlooks, to decide if rap music is ultimately shaping our generation in a more negative way or a more positive way. In my personal opinion, I would say rap music is overall negatively impacting our society because of the savage use of lyrics and the violent tendencies it causes in adolescents.

Table of Contents:

Ch. 1: History of Rap Music

Ch. 2: Cases

Ch.3: Positive Impacts

Ch.4: Negative Impacts

Ch.5: Conclusion


Hall, Stuart, and Paul Du Gay. Questions of Cultural Identity. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1996.

Kitwana, Bakari. The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture. New York: Basic Civitas, 2002.

Richardson, Jeanita W., and Kim A. Scott. “Rap Music and Its Violent Progeny: America's Culture of Violence in Context”. The Journal of Negro Education 71.3 (2002): 175–192.

Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1971. Print.

 Hannerz, Ulf (1987). The World in Creolisation. Africa, 57, 546-559.
23 Gustafson, Bradley  Discovering amino acid resicues critical to epithelial sodium channel quaternary structure Dr. Rachell E. Booth The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a unidirectional sodium channel found in the kidney, colon, and lungs. Endogenous expression and functionality of ENaC have been associated with PHA and Liddle syndrome. The ENaC sequences flanking the γ-E254 and β-Q444 amino acid residues were cloned into pGEX-4T-2 plasmids and expressed in BL21 bacteria. Anti-GST affinity chromatography was employed to purify the peptides in preparation for PAGE-gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and SPR. SPR measures the binding kinetics of two molecules. ENaC is responsible for fine-tuning sodium reabsorption and is a potential therapeutic target for managing sodium reabsorption.
24 Hall, Ryan/O'Neill, Mackenzie  The Effects of Source Credibility and Message Frames on Sociopolitical Attitudes Supervising Professor and/or Collaborators: Dr. Maria Czyzewska, Ryan Hall, and Mackenzie O’Neill
Social scientists have long attempted to develop a more complete understanding of why the national sentiment regarding sociopolitical issues are divided along ideological lines. In recent years, the American media landscape has become increasingly fragmented, providing standardized experiences for niche marketed consumers (i.e., liberals and conservatives) that are unifying, persuasive, and narrowcasting. The consequence of which is a schism in sociopolitical attitudes among groups united by a shared ideological perspective that has been constructed around evolutionary rooted moral sentiments. Previous research has demonstrated that message framing can influence people’s sociopolitical attitudes, although more research is needed to better understand the specific mechanism of this effect, particularly interaction with perceived credibility of the message source. Our study will investigate the effect of morally salient message frames (i.e., individualizing vs. binding) on various sociopolitical attitudes (i.e., environmental regulations and immigration policies) in interaction with pre-existing political attitudes and perceived credibility of message source. We will use quantitative research methods to survey the attitude change of 240 student participants via online questionnaires (IRB approval is in-progress) using a 2x3x4 factorial design, two-way ANOVA. We hypothesize that source credibility will decrease the effect of morally salient message frames for participants with extreme pre-existing political attitudes (both, liberal and conservative) compared to participants with moderate pre-existing political attitudes. This study aims to provide a more scientifically applicable explanation of how partisan media, political ideology, and moral sentiments interact to inform American beliefs.
25 Harris, Elizabeth  A Juxtaposition of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan  Elizabeth Harris This research will consist of analyzing the works Robinson Crusoe (1719)by Daniel Defoe and Leviathan (1651) by Thomas Hobbes and my main focus will be the similarities as well as differences in Hobbes’s man in “state of nature” in comparison to Defoe’s account of Crusoe’s experiences with and relationship to nature while stranded on the island. While Leviathan was written prior to Robinson Crusoe and therefore is not directly related to Defoe’s writing of Crusoe’s experiences, there are many parallels between Hobbes’s state of nature and how Crusoe reacts to being stranded on the island then adapts to fend for his own survival.  In his endeavor Crusoe’s main goal is to dominate nature as to manipulate it for his own preservation, and this is the starkest similarity to Hobbes’s theories of self-preservation. However while there are the obvious similarities such as these, there are also differences. One of the main differences is Crusoe’s moral values, which he derives from religion, which Hobbes does not account for due to the lack of actual morals in Hobbes’s “state of nature,” which implies that there is a lack of justice and therefore injustice. In chapter 13 of Leviathan Hobbes states that there is no justice, and therefore no injustice in a state of nature, as justice is a social construct that is created by a sovereign power to be created.
26 Hawkes, Nicholas  Space Box: Imitation of the NASA’s One Year in Space Mission Nicholas Hawkes, Steven Mathis, Dr. Bahram Asiabanpour, Dr. Vedaraman Sriraman, Dr. Araceli Ortiz Texas State University along with NASA EPDC, Aims to increase scientific thought and logical reasoning through a series of educational exercises parallel in thought to that of the NASA “Year in Space” research motives; an attempt to conceptualize and understand the capability of the human body during and after prolonged existence in a weightless environment. Specifically this research explores three of the seven research motives: circadian rhythm, functionality, and human factors. The educational exercises developed are designed to feasibly integrate into current academia, while also empowering scientific thought at the primary and secondary education levels; to shape and mold the future thought processes of young minds. The work has been presented to NASA JSC education directory and has been regarded as a set of effective experiments for the K-12 students to experience engineering design in their science coursework.
27 Hearn, Holly Paving the Way: An Analysis of African American Women’s Contribution to the Civil Rights Movement through Music Holly Hearn The civil rights movement began in the mid-1950s and continued on into the late 1960s. From the beginning of the civil rights movement, African American women inspired activism and played a pivotal role in enacting necessary change. Researchers have emphasized the important role these women assumed, especially women in the entertainment industry. I will analyze and explore the unique way female African American musicians impacted the civil rights movement through their work. In this poster I will make the case that musical contributions of black women differed from that of black men in message and calls to action. I will also analyze specific pieces by African American women to find similar messages. My research places an emphasis on the backgrounds of the artists and how setting played an important role in the production of their work. My research is conducted through historical and lyrical analysis, as well as analysis of published works pertaining to the subject.
28 Heyse, David  Binding Affinity of Epithelial Sodium Channel Subunits Through Surface Plasmon Resonance Wendi David, David Heyse, Luis Ibarra, Luke Lloyd The Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) is a heterotrimeric transmembrane protein found in humans with the role of keeping the cell at homeostasis by passively transporting sodium into the cell. Recently, diseases like hypertension and Liddle’s Syndrome have been linked to non functioning ENaC causing a surge in research focused on this protein. Due to the structure of ENaC being theoretical, measuring the interactions between known amino acids will allow a better understanding of ENaC’s quaternary structure and how mutations at these interactions affect the function of the protein. The goals of the current study are to use surface plasmon resonance to characterize the interactions between the N-285 and E-438 residues on the alpha and beta subunits, respectively. Confirming purification of the two peptides by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis allowed for SPR studies to begin. Once the CM5 sensor chip is immobilized the N-285 and E-438 peptides will be washed over the chip. A binding constant will be determined from this process that will signify a strong interaction or weak interaction. 
29 Hill, Jeffrey The Role of Vital Sign Monitor Carts in the Transmission of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Acute Care Settings Jeffrey Hill Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a constant threat to patient safety, yet these are generally preventable.  Numerous studies have strongly suggested that environmental contamination plays an important role in the transmission of infectious microorganisms.  Pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungus can remain on inanimate surfaces from several minutes to weeks at a time.  In today’s acute care settings, vital sign machines are used on multiple patients without regard to sanitation efforts because of the effort to collect vitals every four hours in most hospitals.  This leads to the vital sign machine becoming a source of indirect-contact transmission of nosocomial pathogens.  In this review, we examine practical recommendations to assist acute care settings in stopping vital sign monitor carts from becoming a continuous source of transmission.  
30 Hooks, Tyler  Footsteps in the Dark: Soul Music’s Pivotal Role in 20th Century Afrocentric Music  Nico Schuler Soul music, as a fusion of gospel, rhythm & blues, and jazz combines many African American music genres into one. Soul music is the origin for most late 20th Century music such as funk, hip hop and many subgenres such as neo soul and quiet storm. Soul music has been on the forefront of the African American sound for years, acting as the voice of the Civil Right movement and has transpired in popular music today. It is constantly being sampled and borrowed from, and many are unaware of the origin popular music is centered around. I want this poster to pay homage to soul music and what it has pioneered in the latter half of the 20th century and on to current musical taste I will take major genres from the 20th century and show the connection soul music has with the success of other genres. I plan to illustrate the pattern that documents the influence of soul music on genres in the 20th century and beyond, and recognize it as the invocation to modern sound.

References in MLA format:

Brooks, Sharon D. "Erykah Badu." The American Mosaic: The African American Experience.ABC-CLIO, 2016. Web. 8 Feb. 2016.

Jackson, Joyce Marie. "Gospel Music." The American Mosaic: The African American Experience.ABC-CLIO, 2016. Web. 8 Feb. 2016.

Neal, Mark Anthony. Soul Babies: Black Popular Culture and the Post-Soul Aesthetic. New York: Routledge. 2002. Print. 

Prahlad, Anand. "Funk." The American Mosaic: The African American Experience. ABC-CLIO,2016. Web. 8 Feb. 2016.
31 Jackson, Parker  HOW WELL DO STUDENTS LEARN FROM INFORMATIONAL POSTERS?            Students are susceptible to a number of informational posters while walking through a college campus.  The goal of this research project is to present students with an educational poster chosen at random from an allocation of subjects including materials science, manufacturing processes, and general engineering techniques.   Students will then be given the opportunity to watch a video pertaining to the information they were exposed to, and then will be given a question to test their retention of the information.  The presentation and testing platform will be conducted in a program written in National Instruments LabVIEW, a Graphical User Interface used to both program, compile, and execute experimental code.  The desired outcome of this experiment is to collect data on how well students learn, retain, and produce what they have learned from an informational poster, and whether or not these tasks are performed better when presented with a supporting video clip.
32 Jennings, Madeleine Improving Steel Cleanliness by Optimizing Inclusion Rinse Time at the LMS Madeleine Jennings

Dr. Laura Bartlett

Edward Rios
During steel processing, an argon gas rinse stir is performed on the molten steel bath at a rate of 2.6 cfm to facilitate non-metallic inclusion removal caused by slag reversion or reoxidation. It is desired that the stirring time be sufficient to reduce the inclusion density without reintroducing inclusions back into the melt, all while being time-sensitive. The optimum stirring time will vary depending on the facility. A study was conducted at CMC Steel Texas to determine the effect of argon stirring time at the LMS on the number, type, size and distribution of inclusions in a certain grade of steel. The goal was to optimize stirring time in order to ensure the most superior final product in terms of inclusion content and mechanical properties. The average size of the inclusions ranged between 2 and 3 μm and size generally increased with stirring time. The composition of the respective inclusions were determined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, EDS, and were found to be complex (Mn,Ca)S, MnO-SiO2, spinel, and calcium aluminate inclusions. Average notch toughness varied from 44 to 59 J and generally decreased with increasing area fraction of inclusion coverage. This was also due to clusters of MnS inclusions that debonded from the matrix, creating large voids and low energy ductile crack propagation.  Using this data, a final rinse time for the facility was determined to be between 5 and 9 minutes to produce the cleanest steel.  Additional rinse time does not improve quality and wastes time and materials.
33 Jennings, Skyler Two Authors, Two Books, One Theme Skyler Jennings Published in 1689, John Locke’s The Second Treatise of Government outlines his views for a better society based on the state of nature. Daniel Defoe’s 1719 novel Robinson Crusoe features the title character’s life journey, including when he was marooned on an island. The two literary works, non-fiction and fiction, depict the state of nature in a similar manner. The Second Treatise of Government defines the state of nature, and Robinson Crusoe gives a concrete example of it.  While Locke’s The Second Treatise of Government was seemingly written with the intention of criticizing the British government, Defoe’s novel Robinson Crusoe tells the fictional tale of what the author views the state of nature to be. Defoe suggests that Robinson Crusoe wasn’t living a satisfied life in British society because man can’t exist in a state of nature while living in said society. Locke's book suggests that mankind once existed in a state of nature, and explains what that means. Locke also suggests some ways that society should be changed to incorporate the state of nature. Scholarly examples will be infused with examples from both of the texts to argue my thesis that both texts talk about the state of nature in society. 
34 Johnson, Candace Avoiding the Inevitable: Overcoming Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in University Athletic Bands Candace Johnson - undergraduate Honors student Any permanent, sensory hearing loss affects an individual’s vocational, social, and home life as it disrupts the ability to communicate with others. A permanent hearing loss in a musician breaks ties with other human beings as well as with a career that he/she has spent years learning. Yet this disability is unnecessary. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most preventable type of hearing loss but the prevention must start at the beginning of one’s musical career. The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes collegiate musicians have towards using high-fidelity hearing protection at Texas State University. The participants were members of the marching band and basketball band. The musicians engaged in an educational program that incorporates dosimeter sound level percentages, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and the video of Etymotic’s Adopt-A-Band hearing protection program. Each musician was issued high-fidelity hearing protection and educated on its proper use. A pre-study and post-study survey/interview were conducted to determine how attitudes and behaviors toward the prevention of NIHL changed over time. Preliminary findings showed both bands are exposed to 2-5 times the daily limit of sound exposure.
35 Johnson, Rickey A.  The Influence of DJ Screw on Souther Hip Hop Culture Rickey A. Johnson The Influence of DJ Screw on Southern Hip-Hop Culture


Z-Ro is my favorite Southern rapper and one of the original members of the Screwed Up Click (S.U.C.). The S.U.C. was founded by DJ Screw in order to provide jobs, an expressive outlet, and opportunity for Houston-based hip-hop artists. In this research I will be discussing the influence DJ Screw had on the southern hip-hop culture. I will review his style of slowing down (‘screw”) and scratching (“chopped”) music, and how it created a sub-genre in hip-hop. I will offer discourse on how his uniqe style of music influenced a whole generation of southern DJs and rappers. I will also provide information on DJ Screw’s influence on the southern hip-hop pop culture scene in regards to gold grills, custom Cadillac’s with “pop trunk” and “swangers”, and the illegal use of prescription cough syrup referred to as “lean”.

Westhoff, B. (2011). Dirty South: Outkast, Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, and the Southern rappers who

reinvented hip-hop. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.

Corcoran, M. J. (2005). All Over The Map: True Heroes of Texas Music. Austin: University of Texas


Contemporary Black biography: Profiles from the international Black community. (2014). Detroit,

Mich: Gale.

Steptoe, T. L.  (2016). Race in The Modern City. Houston Bound: Culture and Color

in a Jim Crow City.  (1st ed., pp. 223–234). University of California Press. Retrieved from

Djavadzadeh, T. (2010). Houston Rap Music-Changes, Influences, Southside. Journal of The

American Studies Association of Texas, 41, 11-16
36 Kreidler, Olivia Characterization of Mutations in the Alpha Subunit of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) Olivia Kreidler and Rachell E. Booth The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a kidney transport protein that is responsible for the reabsorption of sodium back into the bloodstream. Genetic mutations of the protein are associated with blood pressure diseases, such as Liddle’s syndrome and pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1. Thus, studies to understand ENaC structure and function are of high interest as a potential mechanism in controlling these ailments. In its functional form ENaC exists as a complex of three subunits, referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma-ENaC, that together form the selective channel pore. Due to the absence of efficient ENaC structural models, little is known about which specific regions within the subunits are critical to the overall function of the protein. In an effort to identify regions of the protein that contribute to this structure/function relationship, 5 mutated αENaC genes were separately transformed into yeast and characterized based on their growth in a high salt environment and levels of αENaC protein expressed relative to wild type αENaC. While 3 yeast strains transformed with αENaC mutants showed ENaC expression levels similar to that of the wild type, 2 strains transformed with αENaC mutants W112K and His1 showed lower amounts of ENaC expressed.
37 Ledet, Anthony D  Synthesis and characterization of carbene-supported boron(II) radicals and radical cations Dr. Todd Hudnall Stable carbenes have recently emerged as the preeminent ligands for the stabilization of reactive species. As a part of our efforts to this field, we have been actively exploring the ability of carbonyl-decorated carbenes such as diamidocarbenes (DACs), which behave as moderate π-accepting ligands, to stabilize low-oxidation state main group species. To further develop this paradigm, a recent focus has been on the design and synthesis of terminal borylenes that are supported by DACs. This presentation will focus on our struggles and developments toward the isolation of these elusive species. Specifically, we will discuss the reactions of DACs with the dichloroboranes, dichlorophenylborane, dichloro(diisopropylamino)borane, and dichloro-(1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopenta-2,4-dienyl)borane, and the subsequent reduction reaction of the reaction products to afford boron(II)-centered radicals.
38 Lee, Lauren Communicative Work and Shifting Illness Trajectories: An Examination of Individuals Coping with Chronic Lyme disease Lauren Lee  This study focuses on the theory of illness trajectory and the concept of work. The Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework aims to describe the patient’s and their loved ones’ experiences of managing chronic illnesses overtime. The concept of work describes the numerous intricate tasks couples coping with a chronic illness must manage over the course of an illness.

This study employs a qualitative approach to discuss how individuals living with chronic invisible illnesses effectively negotiate the stressors associated with communicative work within a romantic relational context. As chronic Lyme disease directly impacts patients’ relationships and quality of life, it is important to examine the ways in which patients and their support networks cope with the variety of stressors involved in managing this illness. Specifically, this study will address the various ways in which shifting illness trajectory influences intra-dyadic stressors that may arise from one partner’s experiences with chronic Lyme disease. This study will employ a semi-structured interview process to gain knowledge of the patient’s perspectives regarding the communication work, illness-management work, everyday life work, and biographical work which occurs around the negotiation of turning points in these individuals’ illness trajectories. 
39 Lewman, Jordan  The Effects of Obesity and Diabetes on
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis
Jordan R. Lewman1,2, Megan F. Veltri1, Deborah Cunningham1, Daniel J. Wescott1

1Forensic Anthropology Center at Texas State, Department of Anthropology, Texas State University

2 Department of Biology, Texas State University
Although diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) has been well described in literature though very little is known about its etiology. Various hypotheses have been put forth regarding the cause of DISH, the most popular being obesity and diabetes, however little research has been conducted to test these relationships. The goal of this study was to test the relation between DISH prevalence with obesity and diabetes. 

The Texas State donated skeletal collection was used as a sample population for this project due to a seemingly high prevalence of DISH in the collection.  Using biographic information from donor files and biometric data taken from the remains, an assortment of statistics (chi2, Welch’s t-tests, and ANOVA) were run to assess prevalence of obesity and diabetes in individuals with and without DISH. Biographic information included height and weight for BMI calculations and diabetes status. DISH severity was taken as total volume of spinal expression, measured as total length, width, and thickness of ossified ligaments.

No statistically significant differences were found between the BMI spread of individuals with or without DISH [F(2,250)=2.75,p=0.066], however a Welch’s two-tailed t-test showed a significant difference between normal-weight (M=74645.67, Var=8.79E+08) and obese (M=216884.4, Var=1.43E+10) individuals with DISH; t(10)=2.23, p=0.004. The prevalence of DISH did not vary significantly between individuals with or without diabetes.

These results do not support a causal relationship between DISH and diabetes, but obesity could be a contributing factor to increased DISH volume. Our study suggests that further research is needed to determine the etiology of DISH.
40 Liston, Zane  Queer Rap: Gender, sexuality, and self-curation of the black identity in 2016. Zane Liston - Texas State University Gender and sexuality issues have always been present, simply not at the forefront of social consciousness until the 21st century. With this more open dialogue, a discussion of homophobia in hip hop has burgeoned, with a focus on masculinity and the sexual prowess of young black men, which remains a perpetuation of harmful prejudice. However, study of gender and sexuality in terms of a non-binary, intersectional lens has little solid footing in the hip hop world, and the last 3 years specifically have given rise to a number of new artists pushing those limits, within the context of a larger historical racism, and the context of a cultural standard within race. Further, social media has proven integral as a voice for social activism and unsigned artistry. I intend to use primary sources of the artists themselves, some research and scholarly analysis, and some lyric analysis to paint a picture of African American sexuality and gender as it ties to hip hop in 2016, and argue that social media plays an unshakeable role in the ability of individuals to alter this art form. 
41 Longe, Simone  Determining the Postmortem Interval Using Human Mummified Tissue Simone Longe Time since death estimates are vitally important when it comes to criminal investigations, as it helps place a time frame on when a suspect may have killed their victim. There are numerous methods for determining time since death; however, no methods exist for evaluating the postmortem interval using mummified tissue. Mummification of decomposing bodies in areas with hot, dry climates (e.g. central Texas) is extremely prevalent, and thus time since death methods dealing with mummification are absolutely necessary. The following study was performed to ascertain if the postmortem interval can be estimated using mummified tissue from human bodies. 
42 Luna, Mackenzie  Stigmatizing Attitudes Towards Mental Illness  Mackenzie Luna, Dr. Ollie Seay, and Professor Marilyn Gibbions-Arhelger This study investigates  whether education has an effect on stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness among college students. A survey was administered measuring the prevalence of stigma towards mental disorders. 302 undergraduate students were questioned on their perceptions of hypothetical persons who embodied one of the following mental disorders: depression, schizophrenia, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder. A series of independent samples t-tests were performed to determine which mental disorder had the highest stigma. A significant amount of stigma was found towards schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. No significant difference in total stigma was found between the abnormal and the non-abnormal sample, but a significant difference was found in total social distance; suggesting having an understanding of mental illness changes an individual’s perceptions of mental illness. These findings suggest that education alone cannot be a sole predictor of stigma but may influence the individual’s understanding of those diagnosed with a mental disorder. 
43 Mayberry, Karagan  Nature of a Nation Karagan Mayberry Title: Nature of a Nation 


In Letters from a Peruvian Woman (add date here), Françcoise Graffigny critiques the 18th-century French society through her main protagonist Zilia. Zilia despises the French’s treatment of each other and of women particularly and evaluates it against her natural and virtuous Incan society. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes in contrast says that the natural world is solid. “Nature hath made men…equal in the faculties of body and mind” (Leviathan page 74), Hobbes claims. Studying how nature both authors portray nature suggests what was expected from a society and its treatment of women, fellow men and own existence. Graffigny’s and Hobbes’ perception of nature outlines their views of a society. The objective is to isolate the inequalities.
44 McNair, Andrew  Eighteenth Century Accounts of Natural Music from a Philosopher and a Peruvian Woman Andrew McNair I will explore the accounts of music in Françoise Graffigny’s Letters from a Peruvian Woman (1747) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Lettre sur la musique française (1753) and compare their views on the natural qualities of music. Graffigny describes music through the character Zilia as natural while Rousseau writes on the perversion or movement away from the natural in French opera, which he contrasts with the integrity of the natural in Italian opera. I will provide an analysis of Graffigny’s character, Zilia’s experience with music in the context of Rousseau’s concept of natural music as exemplified in Italian music. 
45 Moore, Christopher  Sex differences in prioritization of attractiveness across mating contexts Christopher D Moore; Dr. Carin Perilloux (Texas State University); Dr. Jaime M. Cloud (Western Oregon University) Previous research on measures of physical attractiveness has tended to focus on whether faces and bodies provide any non-overlapping cues with few emphasizing whether preferences for traits hold different priorities depending on mating context. We tested the hypothesis that preferences for face and body traits would differ in priority for men and women between short-term and long-term mating strategies. Participants (N=147) were assigned to either a short-term or long-term mating context. They were then asked to allocate points to 10 physical traits to represent their ideal mate in that context. When assigned to a low point condition, men spent more points on facial traits in long-term contexts, and more points on bodily traits in short-term contexts. Female preferences showed no change in preference based on mating context. Results suggest that facial cues become of higher importance in long term mating contexts for men, but not women.

Keywords: Physical attractiveness; short-term mating; long-term mating; sex differences; evolutionary psychology
46 Morrow, Morgan  Nature versus Civilization and The Role Accustomed Morgan Morrow Nature can have different effects on people depending on their circumstance. Some people can view nature as loving and virtuous; however, another could view nature as hostile and unforgiving.  Using my poster I will compare and contrast the role of nature on the protagonist from the literary works Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe (1719) and Letters from a Peruvian Woman by Françoise de Graffigny (1747).  In Robinson Crusoe, we are taken through the struggling journey of Crusoe upon becoming shipwrecked. Crusoe has to come to terms with nature for the first time and views it as hostile. In contrast to Robinson Crusoe, in Letters from a Peruvian Woman we are introduced to Zilia, who is an Incan princess kidnapped by the Spaniards and later rescued by the French. Since Zilia has an Incan background, she views nature as beautiful and virtuous. In both novels the main characters were introduced to a life they were not accustomed to, and had to struggle to assimilate into the new situation. For Crusoe that meant becoming accustomed to nature, since her came from a civilization; for Zilia had to learn the ways of civilized life upon coming from a sheltered natural life. Both had different views on what could be seen as natural based on the culture they were accustomed to. I will use the encounters of Zilia and Crusoe to show how one might view the role of nature founded on their experiences.
47 Mumbach, Ali  Bring Back Reality Rap Ali Mumbach Rap is a genre of popular music in which a person rhymes words to a beat. Being part of Hip Hop, it has become an essential part of popular culture. There is a very wide range of subjects that have been rapped about. Yet some staples remain constant: violence, sex, and drugs. If rap music with negative / problematic topics has the ability to influence an individual as well as groups of people, as the reception of rap and Hip Hop over the past three decades indicates, then rap can also have a powerfully positive impact on society.

A type of rap formed in the 1980s called reality rap. Different from gangsta rap, which glamorized and promoted illegal behavior, reality rap addressed political and social injustices felt by the black community. It was a way for rappers to bring attention to widespread discrimination and hardship. Leaders in this genre were Public Enemy and Niggas With Attitude (NWA), although NWA also popularized gangsta rap. Later Tupac Shakur was attributed to contributing to the reality rap genre as well.

It is apparent that today, rappers have a certain pull over the youth. The younger generations listen to their music, they wear what the rappers wear, and aspire to be like them. Many articles and studies justify these observations. I believe that reality rap should be brought back to the forefront. Racism and discrimination is still very present in America today. Reality rap can motivate people to come together to make a change.
48 Nathan, Shada Christian Hip Hop: The Beginning of a Cultural Domino Effect Dr. Nico Schuler I want to focus on how the Gospel’s deliverance has changed in the twentieth century. From being restricted to one genre, Christian music, to being found in every genre. However, are the rhythmic additions taking away from the deeper message, God’s word, and conforming to the world? I plan on shedding light on any misconception and show how Christian hip hop does hold the same valuable message as a Negro spiritual would. If anything, Christian hip hop is drawing people closer to God by putting His message into a more relatable way, considering our time period. Christian hip hop is ultimately spreading God’s word throughout the twenty-first century, in a time where the gospel isn’t politically acceptable, and I want to acknowledge its efforts. Due to the wide range of possibilities this topic can take I will highlight one specific Christian rapper, Lecrae. My research will be focused on lyrics and analyzing the true meaning of each word and seeing if it is similar to that of a Negro spiritual rapper. Then I will compare the meaning of Lecrae’s music to that of a popular music rapper, Chance the Rapper. This poster will also show how Gospel is still being used by the African American community to address political issues.
49 Negvesky, James  Thomas Hobbes v. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The State of Nature and Human Strength James Negvesky Political theorists Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau introduced ideas concerning man in the state of nature in their works Leviathan and Discourse on Inequality, respectively. Both authors took widely different approaches when tying civilized society to the state of nature, and when proposing in which state they thought man was stronger. Their differing ideologies stem back to their individual descriptions of the state of nature and in what ways man acts in that environment. Due to the definitions of the state of nature each theorist rests their opinions on, Rousseau’s declaration that man is stronger when in that hypothetical state of nature presents a more logical and sounder conclusion than Hobbes’ thoughts that man is his strongest when in society.
50 Oliveira, Jasmine  The Function of the Epithealial Sodium Channel Protein Complex in Mutant Yeast Absent of An Intracellular Protease Enzyme Jasmine Oliveira The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a protein complex that is important in regulating blood pressure. ENaC’s function is measured in the ability of sodium ion to passes through the channel into the cell. A specific intracellular protease enzyme, furin, is known to enhance function of ENaC by cleavage of the extracellular loops of ENaC subunits. The goals of this experiment were to study the effect intracellular protease enzyme on ENaC function via pronging assay. The effect of the absence of intracellular proteins on the function of ENaC was tested in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells are similar to mammalian cells in structure, but can be cultured much quicker and can be manipulated to take the DNA encoding for the mammalian protein complex. The gene that encodes for ENaC was transformed into yeast cells lacking a specific intracellular protease enzyme. The cells were then serial diluted and pronged on selective media (control) and selective media containing salt.
51 Osta, Erica  Hollow Silica Microspheres for Density-based Bioseparation of a Tumor Biomarker Erica G. Osta, Lichen Xiang, Lingying Li, Ashutosh Chilkoti, Gabriel P. López, Shannon E. Weigum  Detection of dilute proteins in blood or serum, such as tumor biomarkers or other disease indicators, often requires extensive sample preparation and concentration prior to analysis. Existing techniques involving centrifugation or magnetic separation can be time consuming and costly, thus restricting diagnostic testing outside of centralized laboratories (i.e. at the point-of-care). In this work, we explore a density-based bioseparation technique that relies on the passive flotation of inexpensive hollow silica microspheres detection of a common tumor biomarker, the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Reversible capture/release from the glass microspheres was achieved by means of thermally-responsive elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs).The ELP set includes a universal Protein-A/ELP capable of binding a target-specific antibody and a hollow microsphere-immobilized ELP. Qualitative assessment of colocalization of CEA onto microspheres’ surfaces was performed using epifluorescent and confocal microscopy. Quantitation of the released CEA was tracked using fluorescence spectroscopy to establish a dose-dependent response. The stimuli-responsive silica particle system examined in this work has the potential to provide an efficient and cost-effective alternative for bioseparation techniques and reversible capture/release of target bioanalytes. 
52 Parchois, Jacqueline Robinson Crusoe as the Natural Man Jacqueline Parchois Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1651) details out a state of nature that all men are a part of and seek to be free of by entering into a social contract of civil society. In Daniel DeFoe’s novel Robinson Crusoe (1719) the author describes an account of man against nature where man must overcome and master nature in order to live within it. Both of these works rely on man wanting self-preservation as the highest good in the state of nature. The differences of these accounts however, are that within Hobbes’ state of nature, unlimited human desire and competition for limited goods is what drives humans to escape this state of nature. However, in Crusoe, Robinson is the only man on the island and does not compete with other humans for these limited goods. Since Crusoe does not have any competition for goods, he lives in a constant state of pure nature and is unable to escape it. Without other humans on his island, there is no way for a society to exist. By comparing DeFoe’s characterization of Robinson Crusoe to the state of nature laid out from Hobbes’s Leviathan, an interpretation can be made to connect Crusoe as Hobbes’s “natural man” who could succeed without society contrary to Hobbes’s theory. This essay will analyze when Robinson Crusoe is able to re-enter society after life on the island and why he ultimately chooses not to.
53 Peña, Eleuterio Lee  Conserved cysteines may serve a role in binding of HsLARP6 Eleuterio Lee Peña

Eliseo Salas

Jose M. Castro

Andrew Kocian

Dr. Karen A. Lewis, Ph. D.
The La-Related Protein 6 (LARP6) is part of a family of RNA binding proteins known as La-Related Proteins (LARPs). The LARP6 family of proteins has been known to recognize and bind to a stem loop RNA structure in the 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR) of mRNAs.  This region of binding in the LARP6 protein has been observed in the La-Module of the protein, which consists of a La-Motif (LaM) and the RNA recognition motif (RRM).  Comparison of LARP6 proteins across the phylogeny identifies three semi-conserved residues located at the C-terminal domains of LARP6 which may serve a role in structural stability of the protein to allow for binding via disulfide bonds.  The main focus of this study is to observe how structural changes induced on Homo sapiens LARP6 (HsLARP6), through mutations of conserved cysteine residues, influence binding activity.  This will be done through site-directed mutagenesis, targeting one of three conserved cysteines of interest (Cys258, Cys378, and Cys490) for the conversion to serine residues. These Cys-Ser mutant proteins will be expressed, purified, and then analyzed for binding activity using electrophoretic mobility shift assay utilizing and probed mRNA ligand.  This study will seek to understand how binding activity of HsLARP6 protein is effected when mutation is introduced to these semi-conserved cysteine residues. 
54 Przybylski, Connor Exploration of Mrp4’s role in the export of cAMP to induce pigment aggregation in the RPE of dark adapted mice Connor D Przybylski

Tasha Roberts

Sage Stone
The overarching goal of this project is to determine if multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is involved in modulating dark adaptive pigment granule movement in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of mice. MRP4 is a transport protein which exports cyclic AMP from cells. Pigment granules aggregate to the base of RPE cells in the dark and, in fish, in response to increased cyclic AMP levels. In zebrafish, sildenafil, an inhibitor of Mrp4 function, blocks dark adaptive pigment granule aggregation. This result supports the following model: cAMP is exported from photoreceptors, making it available to RPE for import and consequent pigment granule aggregation. We tested whether Mrp4-/- mice were able to aggregate pigment in response to darkness. Images from light- and dark-adapted retinas taken from wild-type and Mrp4-/- mice were obtained by electron microscopy, and data was collected by aligning a 4 µm2 box along Bruch’s membrane and counting the number of pigment granules in each box to determine pigment density.  As predicted by our model, preliminary data suggest dark adapted wild-type mice had the highest pigment density.  However, a larger sample size is needed to collect more data from each treatment to make an accurate analysiS
55 Rainosek, Kyle  Developing an Android App for the Research and Education Projects Kyle Rainosek and Dr. Bahram Asiabanpour
New generation of students and professionals are more comfortable with the use of new technologies such as Apps used on the variety of mobile phones and tablets rather than traditional websites on PCs. It has the benefits such as quick access to real time data, anywhere. In this research, an App is developed to be used as a venue for a multi-institutions project entitled Re-energize. Platform, method, and implementation of the App development are explained in this paper.
56 Rao, Leela  Hip Hop Based Education in a Special Needs Context  Leela Rao, Texas State University The current public school classroom is traditional in every sense of the word, especially with regards to the education of students with intellectual disabilities. As a society, we have continued to value the memorization of facts rather than the synthesis of ideas and creativity, which has resulted in curriculum that is heavily influenced by testing and not the enjoyment of learning. Accordingly, there has been research conducted on the implementation of Hip Hop Based Education (HHBE) as curricula, as well as using aspects Hip Hop culture as pedagogical practices in a typical classroom; however, there is very little information about the benefits of teaching HHBE to children with learning disabilities such as Autism, Down syndrome, ADHD, etc. In my research I explain how HHBE can cater specifically to the special needs of students with learning disabilities, in both curricula and pedagogical practices in the classroom. To do so I examine the different challenges that kids with cognitive disabilities face in the classroom. Then, I discuss the current approaches to special needs education focusing on early childhood and elementary education. Finally, I analyze how different HHBE methods, both curriculum based and pedagogical, can assist in the mitigation of some of the difficulties children with disabilities experience in a special needs early childhood or elementary school classroom.

 Hill, M. L., Petchauer, E. (Eds.). (2013). Schooling Hip-Hop: Expanding Hip Hop Based Education Across the Curriculum. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
57 Ream, Jennifer Development of an Agarose Gel Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay Protocol to Measure Protein-RNA Interactions Jennifer Ream, L. Kevin Lewis, Ph.D and Karen A. Lewis, Ph.D.* Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) are traditionally used to analyze the interaction between a protein and nucleic acid. A small nucleic acid is incubated with increasing concentrations of a protein, resulting in complexes that can be separated by gel electrophoresis. EMSAs are commonly performed using polyacrylamide gels and run at relatively low voltages to prevent excessive heating of the gel. Previous work in this laboratory improved the resolution and separation of DNA species in agarose gel electrophoresis by altering gel structure and buffer composition. The primary goal of the study was to determine if these improved agarose gel conditions could be adapted for use in EMSAs. p19 siRNA -binding protein and its cognate 21-bp double-stranded RNA were  the model system used to optimize the agarose-based EMSAs. We show that high percentage agarose gels run at high voltages (20-35 V/cm) in a low-conductivity buffer can be used to readily separate free and bound RNA complexes. The agarose gel system offers several advantages, shorter run times, simpler gel preparation, and reagents with lower potential health hazards. This EMSA method can function as a learning tool  in teaching laboratories to measure low-affinity protein-nucleic acid interactions as a safe and convenient alternative.
58 Reyes, Jose  Role of TRPV4 in Reactive Oxygen Species Induced Calcium Influx in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells Jose Reyes - Texas State University

Karthik Suresh - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Larissa A. Shimoda - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by disruption of the endothelial barrier in lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVEC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased intracellular calcium have been implicated in the endothelial barrier dysfunction in ARDS, but the mechanisms linking these processes are not fully understood.  The calcium channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) has previously been shown to be involved in endothelial calcium signaling.  We have previously shown that pharmacologic inhibition of TRPV4 attenuates ROS-induced Ca2+ influx in mouse LMVEC.  Based on this data, we hypothesized that TRPV4 was important for ROS-induced Ca2+ influx in human LMVEC (HLMVEC). We first measured TRPV4 expression in HLMVEC. We then measured ROS-induced Ca2+ influx in HLMVEC following  treatment with the TRPV4 inhibitor ruthenium red(RuR) or genetic silencing of TRPV4 using siRNA.  TRPV4 was expressed in HLMVEC, and both RuR and TRPV4 siRNA significantly attenuated ROS-induced Ca2+ influx.  These data suggest a role for TRPV4 in ROS-induced Ca2+ influx in HLMVEC.   
59 Rivera, Karina  Cultural Appropriators: redefining the face of hip-hop Karina Rivera, Nico Schuler (mentor) What role does the white person play in advocating for African American rights? The focus of my analysis is to study the evolution of two white rappers (Eminem, Macklemore) and how their lyrics acknowledge different social problems, such as racial and socioeconomic disparities faced by the African American community. Though everyone that is brave enough to address different social and political issues deserve to be recognized as an advocator, race can often strengthen or weaken an argument. This makes it hard for people to understand what role, if any, they are meant to partake in issues that stem from racial differences. Distinctions between cultural appropriation, appreciation, and exchange are often difficult to identify. However, because cultural appropriation is defined as “the adoption or use of elements of one culture by member of a different culture”, it is safe to place white hip-hop singers, such as Eminem, under this category. Though cultural appropriation has a negative connotation and is often deemed as distasteful, to say the least, these rappers have a lot to say about what is like to be white in America, and consequently, how this affects the African American community. White rappers can potentially empower the average African American, but defying American traditionalists is proving to be a problem. Hip-hop is today’s hope in becoming the catalyst of the biggest change we have yet to witness—a universal change in mentality and the redefining of racial politics. 
60 Rodriguez, Nestor  Analysis of Yeast Chromosomal DNA using Low Percentage  Agarose Gel Electrophoresis  Dr. Kevin Lewis Gel electrophoresis is a standard technique that is used to routinely analyze nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. A standard gel electrophoresis system does have its limits in that it can only resolve DNA molecules that have a length of approximately 25,000 - 30,000 base-pairs (bp). Molecules larger than this would stay in the top of the gel simply because they are too large to enter the pores of the gel. Nuclear chromosomes, mitochondrial genomes, virus DNA's and long PCR (polymerase chain reaction) all are considered important DNA's but are much larger than 30,000 bp. Molecules of that size can be analyzed using a special technique called pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), but an expensive instrument is required.

A method for analyzing DNAs that are 30,000 - 200,000 bp in size using a conventional agrose gel electrophoresis setup has been successfully developed and used for future experiments. This system could then be employed to analyze large chromosomal DNA fragments isolated from wild type cells of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from mutant cells deficient in DNA repair. In addition using the new approach to analyze the migration of circular yeast artificial chromosome (YAC's) could be accomplished. Briefly, the method involves the use of 0.1% - 0.2% agarose gel encased in porous cloth tape to maintain structure of the fragile gel. Initial experiments have demonstrated that chromosomal DNA fragments can be analyzed using this system with an improvement in resolution.
61 Rodriguez, Nina The Dark Side of Female Mating: How the Dark Triad Affects Competitor Derogation in Women Nina Rodriguez & Dr. Judith Easton Previous research suggests possession of the Dark Triad characteristics in men increases the likelihood of their success when competing for access for female partners. However, not much previous research has examined how these traits may influence women’s intrasexual competition tactics. Women who possess Dark Triad traits may be able to successfully derogate potential sexual rivals more than women who do not possess these traits. Female college students (N = 519, Mage = 19.86, SD = 2.32) completed the Short Dark Triad scale (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014), and answered 41 items about use of specific derogation tactics (taken from Buss & Dedden, 1990) in an online questionnaire. Results indicated participants high in all three Dark Triad traits used the following derogation tactics more than participants low in all three: spread rumors about competitor, derogated competitor’s habits, socially ignored competitor, and labeled competitor promiscuous, unpopular, exploitative, emotionally unstable, and a tease. Exploratory regression analyses indicated being high in narcissism specifically predicted derogating a competitor by spreading rumors, and being high in psychopathy predicted derogating by calling a competitor emotionally unstable. Current results indicate Dark Triad personality traits influence intrasexual competition tactics in women- especially the type of derogation used against female competitors.
62 Rogers, Brittany   The Kinetic Chain of You Brittany Rogers  Goal:
To take common injuries, birth defects, or habits of daily living that create problems, or injuries that which then can lead to further problems and find patterns in order to show the connection between body parts and muscles so that for anyone who has a problem it is easier to demonstrate the cause and effect method of the body or the kinetic chain of the body.


By taking previous knowledge of the body from my major athletic training I am then researching common injuries that occur to everyday person who is not in an athletic environment. I will create a graph to demonstrate a flow chart using a tree model that if one thing happens then this could occur where some things connect and other things will branch off. The question to formulate is where did the body go wrong to allow a person to begin to have pain from this injury or defect? How would one correct/ or prevent the causes to decrease their effects? By doing research I will provide ways to correct or prevent the injury to help a non-athletic population. With the poster created an individual will be able to understand the cause and effect method of the kinetic chain in hopes to save a doctor visit from surgery in their older years.    
63 Sanchez, Esau  Ecological Speciation Theory, a Preference and Performance Study of the Host-specific Gall Former, Belonocnema Treatae  Esau Sanchez Belonocnema treatae is a host-specific gall-forming insect in the family Cynipidae.  B. treatae induces galls  (plant growths within which larvae feed) following oviposition on live oak species in the series Virentes (Genus: Quercus). Across its geographic (B. treatae which is found across the southern and southeastern United States), multiple live oak species are inhabited. My first research question is whether, given a choice, B. treatae from central Texas prefer to lay eggs on central Texas live oaks compared with closely related oak species from distant geographic origins. My second question asks whether insect performance (growth and survivorship) is affected by host plant species.  Addressing these questions are vital to understanding how variation in host plants drives evolutionary divergence of host-specific plant feeding insects.   
64 Sanchez, Mariela Ramirez  Future Aerospace-engineers and Mathematicians Academy: The influence of parents in their children's STEM related career choice. Mariela Ramirez Sanchez, Dr. Laura  Rodriguez-Amaya  Future Aerospace-engineers and Mathematicians Academy (FAMA) is an outreach program that targets underrepresented students such as women, black/African Americans, and Hispanics, in San Marcos CISD to increase awareness of STEM and its fields. FAMA is involving parents in STEM related activities, such as Family Night, which consist of families coming together to do fun science experiments. Another intervention that FAMA hosts are our Parent/Family Workshops where parents are educated on how to help their children with their STEM related homework. According to research parents are one of the most influential people in student’s career choice (Ing, Marsha 2014), and that is why FAMA is dedicated in putting such a big emphasis in parent involvement through our Family Nights and Parent/Family Workshops. 
65 Sanders, Courtney  Robinson Crusoe: Man in Nature and the Nature of man  Courtney Sanders Robinson Crusoe 1719 tells the tale of a man who was shipwrecked on a deserted island and must endure the hardships that nature throws at him. The ideas from Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan 1651 and John Locke’s The Second Treatise of Government 1689 give different perspectives of what the nature of man would be, if he were left in nature without a society to protect him. Hobbes tells of a brutish and short life that man would endure if he were left in nature, while Locke does not agree and asserts that life can be prosperous. Clearly, we see that Hobbes’ prediction falls short after Crusoe survives on the island for 28 years. By analyzing more of Robinson Crusoe we find that the tale is more Lockean, than it is Hobbesian, although it does take on some of Hobbes’ ideals. Robinson Crusoe is rather social and friendly in nature, as Locke predicts. He also makes use of the land by planting crops and farming goats, something the Hobbes says would not happen if left alone in nature. We do see the need for a sovereign power when other characters are introduced, which is a core idea of Hobbes. These are only a few examples of how Lockean and Hobbesian ideas are imbedded into the story, but after further analysis we will see that Robinson Crusoe is more Lockean than it is Hobbesian. 
66 Sawyer, Amari 2Pac: The Politics behind Gang Violence Amari Sawyer This poster will examine the life of famous East Harlem rapper Tupac Shakur and his lyrical rhymes about being a “Thug 4 Life”. While the majority of Tupac’s lyrics are centralized around his life and violent uproars, I will examine his music and poems as a whole to express how he influenced rap culture. Tupac has been linked to gang violence and scaring urban black America in the 1990s, but there is more to the story than what has been previously written. It wasn’t so much that 2Pac influenced gang violence but more like the violence influenced him and his music. Some scholars have written on how Tupac brought out the violent side of young Americans but they have not written on how rap music has changed from the past and present since 2Pac’s time. Similarly, I can describe how the lyrics in rap music are more about materialistic items instead of on political issues like they used to be. Also, highlighting how some gangs were meant to bring all the violence to an end but only provoked it and how his music got people to actually notice what was going on regarding politics and violence.  By displaying this research, I want to accomplish providing a full spectrum of Tupac Shakur’s life in-depth and explain the importance of music.
67 Schmidt, Lauren  A Mild Day in Hell: Examining Adaptations of the Persephone Myth Author: Lauren Schmidt The twenty-first century has witnessed a renaissance of the Persephone myth. The Greek myth depicting the origin of seasons is being refashioned, retold, and reborn in the forms of visual, theatrical, and written art. Through literary review and qualitative research, this projects seeks to explore the common themes and implications of modern adaptations of the Persephone myth, concentrating specifically on self-published media.

This research is currently a work in progress. Early findings include the value of the myth’s aesthetics; direct communication between creator and consumer; changing conventions from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; and using storytelling to cope with trauma, complex familial relationships, and changing identities.
68 Shabankareh Bandari, Alireza  Media and Rape Culture Alireza Shankareh Bandari

Dr. Bob Price (Thesis Supervisor)

Shawn Patrick (Thesis Mentor)
Although Sexual Assault has attracted much attention in social science research and the media, discussion of female on male rape still seems like a taboo. Most media and even some scientific institutions either deny the existence of such assault or consider it as a mislead and victim blaming regarding male on female rape. There is a comparative lack of practical information on a female on male rape, but it is possible to chart the academic development of female on male rape as a social problem. It is important to examine this development because the current direction of the research on female on male rapes has severe consequences for how we understand sexual assault in general. Until 2012, the FBI defined rape as “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.” Ultimately, local authorities and some activists began to question the insufficient gender-limited description. In 2010, the FBI left out Chicago’s report on 86,767 rape cases, due to lack of consistency with the definition. Because of those sorts of problems of definitions and records keeping, the FBI changed its definition in 2012 and focused on penetration with no mention of gender. The idea of this research is not to undermine the women who are victims of abuse, but to remind people that women can rape men. The analysis demonstrates the difficulties with the perception of female on male rape and social perspectives of it, and how misrepresentation of the concept through mainstream media affects the attitudes of society.
69 Shaw, Katie Assessing Students Understanding of Intermolecular Forces Using Representations of Large and Small Structures Katie Shaw- Undergraduate Researcher

Dr. Cynthia J. Luxford- Research Advisor
General chemistry is often considered a service course for both STEM and non-science majors.  A recent study of general chemistry ACS exams revealed that there is a vacancy of questions assessing the relationship of intermolecular forces and large molecules. In addition, further studies have shown that students historically have difficultly differentiating between intermolecular and intramolecular forces.  In order to explore biochemistry and general chemistry students’ understanding of intermolecular forces in terms of large and small structures, students were first given a general survey measuring their level of content expertise. A sample of students were invited to participate in a three-phase interactive semi-structured interview protocol designed to determine: 1) What do student’s descriptions of representations of attractions between and within large and small molecules reveal about their understanding of intermolecular forces? and 2) Are students able to bridge their understanding of intermolecular forces between small molecules to larger biological structures?
70 Taylor, Logan  Magic Within the House of the Mouse: A Study on Disney Logan Taylor - Author This article addresses an important question: “how does the image of the Walt Disney Company attract guests to visit the parks so frequently and what entices people to work for the company as full-time cast members?” The methodology used for this research project is called portraiture; this is a qualitative and ethnographic research method that weaves interviews, observational site visits, library research, and my personal narrative.  I interviewed two participants who have both completed the Disney College Program, recorded an observational site visit at the Disney Store and at the Texas State University Career Center, used the library databases to find scholarly journals, and included my personal narrative. Through the collection of data, my research sheds a new light on Disney. Three themes have emerged throughout my research: What is The Disney Experience, How Does Disney Affect the National Vision, and How Does the Human Mind React Towards Disney. Through these three themes, we are able to witness the Magic in the House of the Mouse. Future scholars can use this research to relate back to fields ranging from hospitality and tourism to psychology and business. 
71 Taylor, Meg Z.  Ethnocentrism and Savagery: Graffigny and DeFoe's accounts of primitive culture Meg Z. Taylor- Texas State Student A common experience the main characters in Graffigny’s Letters of a Peruvian Woman and DeFoe’s Robinson Crusoe encountered was learning how to interact with foreign cultures. Each author allows the main character to describe and interact with these cultures after a sudden detachment from their own familiar culture. The authors force the main characters into necessary interaction with a new and “savage” culture. Each novel expresses the idea of a “savage” culture in a unique way. DeFoe shows his readers that less advanced and primitive cultures are more savage and unnatural than the established, advanced European culture. However, Graffingy shows her readers that the more advanced French culture to be more “savage” than a primitive Incan culture. Each main character in these two novels exhibits ethnocentrism, showing themselves and their own culture to be closer the natural state of man in nature than the cultures they encounter. This paper will discuss the idea of “savage” cultures that Graffingy and DeFoe create for their readers, and will compare and contrast this idea between these two very different representations of what an unnatural culture is. As each character experiences a unique assimilation into a new culture, their opinions on what culture should be come forward. DeFoe’s character, Robinson Crusoe, converts a “savage” into a Christian, facilitating the assimilation of another individual into his own culture. Graffigny’s character, Zilia, is an Incan princess who is assimilated into high French society. Through this process, the authors illustrate “savage” behaviors between two very different cultures.
72 Treffalls, John  Can I Eat This? Disgust sensitivity modulates event related potentials to feedback regarding edibility John Treffalls [1], Natalie Ceballos [1], Allison Zborowski [1], Frank DePalma [1], Rebecca Lopas [1] & Reiko Graham [1]

[1] Texas State University, Psychology Dept. 
Feedback-related negativity (FRN) indexes neural activity to losses/errors during risk-taking, with timing and distribution similar to the N2 (implicated in error-related processing and salience). In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the N2 to processes related to appetitive motivations. Eighteen undergraduates (10 female, mean age = 21.1 years) viewed ambiguous close-ups of foods/drinks or nonfoods/drinks, and indicated whether or not they could consume the objects. Feedback (an unambiguous image/information about stimulus type) was then provided. Disgust sensitivity (DS) was assessed and used to create two groups: a moderate/high (n = 9) and a low (n = 9) group. Analyses focused on the N2 to feedback-related events; P3 amplitudes were also assessed as an index of subsequent resource allocation. N2 amplitudes differed as a function of DS: those high in DS showed large N2s to all feedback. In contrast, N2 amplitudes in the low DS group were highest for food/correct and nonfood/incorrect trials. With respect to the P3, amplitudes were highest to food/correct items. There was also a DS group x feedback interaction, such that enhanced amplitudes for correct relative to incorrect trials were more pronounced for the low DS group than the high DS group. Although tentative, results suggest that the FRN/N2 is sensitive to appetitive motivations, indexing attentional capture to disgust-related feedback, but that this may be modulated by DS. Individuals low in DS attend to motivationally-relevant feedback (i.e., food/correct and nonfood/incorrect), whereas individuals high in DS may attend more generally to feedback related to edibility.
73 Tyson, Madison  One Giant Leap for Womankind Madison Tyson In Letters from a Peruvian Woman, Graffigny attempts to prove that in the state of nature women are equal to men in all aspects. Her narrator/protagonist, Zilia, comes from a society that Graffigny portrays as closest to nature, yet society does not let women be equal to men through the restrictions imposed on women such as marriage and by denying them an education. In contrast, in Paradise Lost, Milton portrays women as weaker moral beings than men, who are subservient to men. His version of the Fall of mankind into a post-lapsarian state places blame on the female character, Eve, because she was tempted by the serpent. Graffigny critiques the French society and specifically how women are treated and act, while Milton critiques women for being inadequate and for causing men to be sinful as well. Paradise Lost being written in 1667 and Letters from a Peruvian Woman in 1747, shows a shift in how women were thought of. Though it was still not perfect, women were finally able to start thinking for themselves and become activists for their own rights. A women’s role in society was only determined by men and God, but as we were able to question it, at least we could realize we had the ability to get out of that. The progression of literacy in the modern period allowed women to consciously criticize their role in society, which is a giant leap for women in history.
74 Vela, Jorge A.  The Vitality of College and the Mark Zuckerberg Syndrome Jorge Vela The economic crisis and the fact that many college students cannot find employment after graduating from college has put a constraint on the benefits of getting a formal education. Many students now prefer to either start working immediately or start their own business. In fact, some students go to college just in order to learn ways of how to start their entrepreneurial ventures. This arises for what this paper terms as Mark Zuckerberg syndrome. This is considered the belief that by simply going to college and starting an entrepreneurial venture a person will be wealthy as many wealthy people do not have any formal collegiate education. In order to explain this phenomenon, this study delves into study what the syndrome is, why college students are not preferring an education, and whether college is still worth it or not considering this theory.
75 Womack, Josh Gerard  The Immortal Technique: Revolutionary Political Philosophy Personified in Hip Hop Josh Gerard Womack Few hip hop artists can add the titles "humanitarian" or "political activist" to their job description. Felipe Coronel is one who can. Better known by his artist moniker "Immortal Technique", the self described revolutionary evokes the fiery rhetoric of legendary revolutionaries. His commitment to truth earned esteem in the civil rights community. Dr. Colonel West even appeared in his documentary film, "The (R)evolution of Immortal Technique". Mumia Abu Jamal introduces Tech's second album as "truth in the form of hip hop". Coronel refuses to sign a record deal and has remained independent, in control of his music and his message. He travels the world and recently opened an orphanage in Kabul, Afghanistan and purchased a large farm in Peru for his extended family. He is the change he wants to see in the world. In my essay I examine his statements made about America's true relationship to history. He challenges American exceptionalism, exposes her hypocrisy and presents facts to support his logic. I have transcribed hours of his interview footage and synthesized a political philosophy he represents. “At the end of the day we are all one human race, and the only people that are scared of the Truth are those who are lying to you”- Immortal Technique.