Brandi Barrier and Daniel Velez (Faculty advisor: Dr. Jitendra Tate, Co-author: Dmitri Kabakov)
Polymer matrix composites (PMC) consist of a fiber reinforcement (E-glass, S2-glass, or carbon) and a polymer matrix/resin (polyester, vinyl ester, polyurethane, phenolic, epoxy, or cyanate ester). E-glass/phenolic composites are gaining popularity in marine, transportation(ground and aviation), military, and construction industry due to their exemplary fire, smoke, and toxicity (FST) properties. It is very important that E-glass/phenloic composites possess good FST and mechanical properties to help enhance safety in the previously mentioned applications. This study proposes to modify a water-based phenolic resin (Cellobond© J2027L) with montmorillonite nanoclay (Cloisite© Na+) at different loadings (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5wt%) to enhance FST and mechanical properties. A THINKY planetary centrifugal mixer was used for the dispersion of the nanoclay in the phenolic resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were used to determine the deg! ree of nanoparticles dispersions in the polymer nanocomposites. This mixing technique was compared with a high shear mixing technique to determine which mixing technique was more successful at thoroughly dispersing the nanoparticles in the phenolic resin. Both mixing techniques have different potential advantages. Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is a low cost closed molding process. This nano-modified phenolic resin was used to manufacture E-glass reinforced composites using this low-cost VARTM process. Mass loss calorimeter tests were conducted at a heat flux of 35 kW/m2 for these composites. In addition, mechanical properties such as flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength, and compressive strength were evaluated.
Business Law Honors Students
Sustainability in the Classroom, at Texas State, in San Marcos, and the World
In our initial class meeting, we, the students in Honors Business Law 2361, voted for a "two-for-one" learning experience, covering the details of the core business course and working on complex campus and community sustainability projects. We divided into four foursomes. First, with Ms. Nusbaum, a group is tackling rating the Planning, Administration & Engagement at Texas State by looking at diversity initiatives, investments, and community service issues. This research will be the basis of Ms. Nusbaum's grant proposal for STARS (Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System) that will fund a Texas State, professionally-done inventory. Second, with Ms. Flores and Ms. Mitchell, a group is collaborating with the Phoenix School which serves the under-represented, at risk students. To enhance and embrace self-esteem and success, we will sponsor new visits to Texas State for college days, high school projects on green initiatives & even creative, social initiatives based on local and international dance companies' performances. Third, at Central Texas Medical Center with Mr. DeStefano, another group is helping host the opening of the $35 million birthing center in November. Education of under-served is at the heart of CTMC's mission. In con! junction with the San Marcos Chamber of Commerce, CTMC and our class will bring speakers to the 1st San Marcos Green Expo in March 2010. Fourth, under the leadership of Ms. Franks and Ms. Moyer, a group is addressing Downtown San Marcos Business Association and Main Street Downtown issues of sustainability & historic preservation. The Dunbar Neighborhood and the Calaboose African American History Museum will be spotlighted by our class for use by Dr. Sandra Mayo in Black History Month. The San Marcos Police Bicycle Patrol asked for our assistance, as well as the committee submitting new proposals for redesigning the pedestrian corridor downtown. With the multitude of initiatives, our class will show how one student and one class can make a difference.
Robert Ben Crawford
The Indwelling God
The Indwelling God is a script for a potential video game. There are three protagonists – Equii, Vlanci, and Rekin - who attempt to overthrow the antagonist, Afanasi, at different periods. As the story progresses, each protagonist will help the game-player learn more about the world and help develop a bitter hatred towards the antagonist. Philosophical themes will include ideas of eternal recurrence, familial ties, the dualistic nature of man, and the difference between duty and opportunity. There are several scenes within each chapter that span lengths of time which are meant to allow the player to play the game; whereas, the scenes themselves are checkpoints that the story and the player must progress through.
Matt Dominguez and James P. LeSage
The Impact of Migration on Metro and Non-Metro Marginal Tax Prices for County Government Services
Migration of population has impacts on the provision of local government services. Destination regions should beneﬁt from an inﬂow of more highly skilled and educated workers, since these are the groups most likely to move. On the other hand, origin regions may suffer from a loss of the more productive members of their communities who are also less dependent on government services. This reasoning has led to the argument that rural-urban migration trends over the past half century have increased the costs of providing local government services in rural areas. This study examines the relationship between the marginal tax cost of county government services and population in- and out-migration for a sample of 950 counties that exist in metropolitan areas versus 1,741 non-metropolitan counties. A spatial econometric model is used to quantify direct and indirect (spillover) effects arising from in- and out-migration from neighboring counties and non-neighboring counties that impact the marginal tax costs of county-level government services.
Cover Your Eyes: Considering Empathetic Response in Reviewing Visual Art Conveying Trauma
In the process of considering art, especially images of pain and trauma, the audience serves an important role, as their reaction is an integral part of the experience, even as part of the process of art making. Artists may overtly or covertly attempt to manipulate the reaction of the audience, to guide the empathetic response of the viewer. As both a visual artist and a critical thinker, I am interested in the effect of this empathetic response and the complex relationship that exists between the artist, the viewer and the artwork. In this paper I will be taking into account recent neurological research into Mirror Neuron Systems (MNS) in the brain, sociological studies on empathy in relation to trauma and pain, and abject theory as explained by French feminist theorist Julia Kristeva to synthesize a holistic understanding of the viewer's response to pain and trauma in art. I will engage the work of recognized artists, such as Marina Ab! ramovic and Yoko Ono, interpreting their performative iterations of pain and trauma through this understanding of the mechanics of empathetic response. For example, the experience of a viewer watching as a young man aggressively approaches Ono and removes large portions of her clothing in the performance of Cut (1965). The value of understanding the empathetic process will be immediately applicable to my creative process. The paper ends with a brief explanation of my own work, which seeks to convey the trauma of living within a gendered body that is constrained by society.
Ray Gonzales, Sam Peterson, Tim Harris, and Irfan Syed
The effects of nanoparticles (Halloysites) on Hyalella azteca (scuds) and Procambarus clarkii (crayfish) with respect to mortality rate
Halloysite is a type of nanoparticle that are used in many products, which may be deposited by clothing, cosmetics, paints, and fuel additives into aquatic ecosystems. Such effect on the surrounding environment is relatively unknown due to little research done with this type of nanoparticle within its time of discovery. The researches with other types of nanoparticles used in commercial activities have revealed that they present adverse effects on the physiology of humans and animals. For this experiment we wanted to observe the effect natural nanoparticles would have on the aquatic ecosystem, compared to the currently known effects of the commercially released nanoparticles. We observed the effects that three different amounts of Halloysite would have on scud and crayfish mortality rates and activity. The predicted outcome was that the nanoparticles would significantly affect the survival rate of the scud and crayfish. The three different amounts of Halloysite used were, 0 mg, 1.0 mg, and 25.0 mg each introduced to the container of each scud and crawfish. The energy source provided in each container was 1 large and 1 small dried oak leaf, which was weighed initially and after the completion of the experiment to measure leaf-litter breakdown. The scuds were divided into three treatments, each with three replicates. Each replicate initially contained 10 scuds. Additionally, nine crawfish containers were also created with 1 female crawfish per container. The crayfish were also divided into three treatments and each treatment had three replicates. The three treatments contained three different quantities of Halloysite for the duration of 10 days, and the containers were checked for mortality once every 24 hours. Contradictory to the results obtained using commercially used nanoparticles, the results yielded no significant difference between the treatment amounts. The scuds treated with nanaoparticles experienced the same survival rates observed by the scuds without nanoparticles. The results suggest that a higher amount of naturally occurring nanoparticles may be needed to show the effects it may have on scuds and crayfish, which are commonly found in aquatic ecosystems.
The Storytelling Tradition in Miguel Cervantes' Don Quixote
The curious phenomenon of storytelling is unique to human beings, and has for millennia been a vital vein for the development of human civilization. Epic poems glorify the deeds of heroes, stories embody religious beliefs, and our world generally becomes more sensible through stories, both factual and fictional. Miguel Cervantes’ character, the story-obsessed Don Quixote, represents our collective fascination with stories. Cervantes, in his novel Don Quixote, employs the storytelling tradition to make Quixote’s worlds—both that of his imagination and that in which Quixote lives—more ingenious and sensible. Cervantes’ numerous themes seem at first as disconnected and disorganized as Quixote’s thinking. However, utilizing the storytelling tradition within his novel, Cervantes coheres his disparate themes into a harmonious whole. This approach mirrors our general storytelling tradition that makes our world—historical and modern —more sensible, however random some of its events seem. By focusing on Part I of Don Quixote, my essay will analyze not only Cervantes’ use of stories within stories, but also his layered narrative structure, both of which devices make the novel Don Quixote a microcosm of the storytelling tradition that is crucial to our civilization’s development.
Dave P. Hanrath
From Bankruptcy to Billions: How Spider-Man and the X-Men Rescued Marvel
At the end of 1996 Marvel Comics filed for bankruptcy. In 2009 they were bought by Disney for $4 billion. Marvel's movies brought them back to the forefront of the industry, but how did the movies become so successful?
Alex Herrera and Erik Larson (Faculty advisor: Dr. Jitendra Tate)
Kenaf reinforced Soy-based Polyurethane Nanocomposites: Mechanical and Thermal Properties
Nanomodified soy-based polyurethane was reinforced with a kenaf core powder to improve mechanical and thermal properties. The kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core powder, donated by Kenaf Industries in Raymondville, TX, is made from ground core fibers that underlie bast fibers used in paper manufacturing. Aromatic polyisocyanate was used as a curing agent to formulate non-foam full density thermoset polyurethane resin. Four loadings each of Halloyosite nanotubes (HNT) and nanosilica were introduced in soy-based polyurethane. HNT was dispersed using a planetary centrifugal mixer and nanosilica was dispersed using simple mechanical stirring. Test panels were manufactured using heated platen compression press and cut into test specimens using an abrasive water jet machine. These nanocomposites were characterized under mechanical loading in accordance with the AMSE testing standard. Mechanical tests include tension, compression, and flexure. Addi! tional characterization of nanoparticle dispersion was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Thermal analysis of these composites is performed to evaluate thermal stability and glass transition temperature.
Travis Hilbig and Ben Butler (Faculty advisor: Dr. Jitendra Tate)
Effect of Mixing Techniques on Thermal and Fatigue Properties of Epoxy Resin with Halloysite Nanotubes
Using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) is a relatively new technology with many unexplored properties. HNTs are inexpensive and have the potential to be an inexpensive substitute for Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of a polyer matrix. These particles have shown potential in increasing impact strength in epoxy as well as showing significant improvement in tensile strength, modulus and flexural modulus. The broader objective is to create an epoxy nanocomposites using HNT that can be successfully dispersed using low cost methods such as mechanical stirring or centrifugal mixing. This epoxy nanocomposite will then be used as a matrix material in E-glass (fiberglass) reinforced composites in order to test the improved properties of this low-cost fiber reinforced nano-composite. In this paper, the possibility of using low cost mixing methods to disperse the HNT nanoparticles, such as mechanical stirring by Dispermat© or centrifugal mixing by THINKY©, in an epoxy resin will be compared and the amount of dispersion will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been shown that simple mechanical mixing is sufficient to disperse HNT in an epoxy resin. Once the better method for mixing has been found, different loadings of HNT in the epoxy resin will be tested for improvement of toughness properties, using Izod impact and flexure tests, as well as thermal properties, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results will be compared and expressed to show the optimal percent weight loading of HNT in an epoxy resin system.
Charles Jacobs and Ben Olson (Faculty advisor: Jitendra S. Tate, Co-authors: Joseph H. Koo and Dmitri Kabakov)
Thermal Stability Studies on Nylon 11/Nanographen Nanocomposites
The scope of this report is to evaluate thermal properties of polyamide 11 (PA11)/nanographene platelet (NGP) nanocomposites. The main processing technique used was hand mixing PA11 and NGPs using a flat wooden dowel. Isopropyl alcohol (OPA) was used as a solvent to assist in disperson of the NGPs, within PA11. The resultant solution of PA11/NGPs was heated to between 80-85°C in order to evaporate the IPA and then placed in a compression press between aluminum foils at 190 C and used to produce a thin film for testing. Thermal characterization of nanocomposites include thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies with a heating rate of 10°C/min. Previous research and analysis of nanographen suggst that the improved thermal properties are ideal for application as a thermal management layer in microelectronic devices, lightning protection in aircraft, and thermally conductive films. Our goal was to compare neat resin PA11 to NGP modified PA11 to determine if improvement in thermal properties occurred and if the film will be practical for use in industrial applications.
Effects of Food Quality on the Growth of Acheta domesticus (Linnaeus)
Studying food webs and animal communities is important to understanding the basis of structure and functioning in ecosystems. Nutritional ecology of organisms and the basis from which they feed provide information on trophic flows across the land and aquatic ecosystems in which organisms use resources for optimal growth and nutrition. A study was conducted specifically to the subject of the variability of food resources in house crickets (Acheta domesticus and resulting growth analysis. Four treatments of food resources with different quality to house crickets were (1)vegetative food only,(2)fish only,(3) both vegetative and fish resources,(4)a control (no food. We hypothesized that the house crickets fed with vegetative and fish will grow more and have higher biomass than those limited to one nutritional subsidy only. The observed results confirmed the prediction that the growth of house crickets directly responded to limited or denied resources through decreased biomass and increased mortality.
Kara Jimenez Niaomi Gallegos and Megan Lindsay
Diet Selection of the Red Eared Slider Turtle, Chrysemys scripta
The Texas native turtle, the Red Eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) may play an important ecological role in the food web in the San Marcos River. There are recent concerns over the turtles negative effect on the fish population and the rates of consumption. The objective of this study is to determine what food item the red-eared slider prefers when comparing multiple available food resources. This diet selection experiment will show the impact the turtles have in the ecosystem based on their selection. Reconstruction of streams was created to simulate their habitats in nature using rocks, soil, and sub-dividers. Each stream channel had one slider. The body size of turtles varied to show the total range of a population and resemble an actual community. The treatments of the experiment included filamentous algae, fish, crayfish, and snails in individual cages left in channels for the turtles to eat at their leisure. We measured weight of each food item before and after the experiment within a 24 hour period. Our preliminary results showed that the preferential diet items for the Red Eared Slider were dead fish and crayfish. The results of the trails supported our prediction that the Red Eared Slider turtles may have a strong negative effect on fish populations. The turtles in the experiment preferred fish rather than other food items they were provided.
Benjamin Lamb, Deleigh Hermes, and Christina Zambrano (Faculty advisor, Jason Reed)
Newcomers: Wurzbach Manor
Wurzbach Manor is an unassuming apartment complex in an ordinary looking neighborhood in San Antonio, Texas. Standing outside its wrought iron gates, passersby would never suspect the vibrant tapestry of cultural diversity that teems within. This bland housing development is the home of refugees brought to the United States from Burma, Afghanistan, Kenya, Somalia, Iraq and several other countries and therefore has become a refuge of unique and un-Americanized cultures, ripe with stories to be told and voices to be heard.
Working collaboratively with the youth of Wurzbach Manor, our Newcomers program utilized photography and creative writing to provide the refugee children an opportunity to express their viewpoint in new ways, through the creation of art. Over a period of two weeks, we gave each child a disposable camera and a composition journal and encouraged them to express themselves and share with us their perspective and lifestyle.
Rooted in our culture of iPods and the wild web, gaining a fresh and real perspective is difficult. These refugee youth, however, can provide us with a needed dose of global perspective simply by reflecting on their new place in our culture. Gleaning over 1000 images, the Newcomers program will produce a book of images and an exhibition in order to spread this perspective and give a voice to those who have an important story to tell. Our poster will include several images and writing selections from the youth at Wurzbach Manor, as well as information on refugees in the United States.
Leslie Long and Amanda Dunagin
Use of Pseudorandom Number Generators in Software Testing
Pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are used frequently in computers, from games to complex physics simulations. In software testing, PRNGs can be used to create a set of inputs to a program that covers a wide range of possible inputs. To assess how the software handles a range of inputs, a PRNG needs to output a uniform range of numbers. Uniformity is important for testing purposes. Uniformity is how series of numbers generated are distributed. Samples taken from a PRNG should be uniform across a spectrum of possible numbers so that they varied enough to be relevant for testing purposes. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the usefulness of the PRNG included in Microsoftâ€™s Windows XP operating system. This will include an analysis of the uniformity of numbers that are the output of the PRNG across n-dimensions, as well as the length of the period of the PRNG.
Molyne Martinez, Mario Sullivan, and Yixin Zhang
Dietary Preference of House Crickets: The Related Effects of Limited Food Distribution
Nutritional values found in food sources are a growing subject of interest in field ecology. It is designed to give greater insight to insect dietary needs and food preference. Studies help to explain the shift in eating habits for some species of insects during environmental change. This intern allows us to see what nutrients are vital to the growth and development of our chosen house cricket. The objective of this investigation is to design an experiment to help gain information towards the house crickets diet while placed under stress when food resources are limited to two food types. The food resources used were dried fish matter and leaf matter; water is present during the testing in each of the treatments. We hypothesize that those consumers that have access to varying resources and ample water supplies will grow more quickly and obtain greater overall biomass.
The experimental set up is fairly simple there are a total of four treatments each designed to test a type food source. The first treatment is crickets without any food matter. The second are crickets placed with just dried fish matter. The third treatment is the subject placed just with leaf matter. And finally our last treatment will have both leaf and fish matter. Treatment one is verifies our thoughts that without adequate food resources are subject wound not survive within hrs. Treatment two and three do not show significant growth of cricket biomass and length, but do verify an increase in the amount of food consumed during the study. The final treatment verifies our hypothesis by revealing slight increase of cricket biomass and length of the subjects, along with a significant amount of food resource consumed during the study. This study does draw light to the study of nutritional values in ecology and help us to further design studies that will lead to further inves! tigation in food discrimination within riparian environments.
With advanced technology and savvy Generation Y consumers who know how to make use of it, the Japanese market has become one of the most unique in the world. Japanese consumers increasingly use technology as a solution for the problems they have. In addition, many Japanese companies provide technological solutions for their consumers as well as communicate with them through varied technologies. Often, many of these technologies are found only in Japan. Due to a highly competitive market and severe consumer scrutiny, these cutting-edge technologies that are successful in Japan tend to succeed in other countries as well. In fact, many technological innovations once unique to Japan have been adopted globally and are now mainstream. By innovating totally new technologies or creating a fusion of Western and Japanese technologies, the Japanese market has become an increasingly interesting market. This paper was created to provide other countries with information about how Japanese consumers use technology. The paper covers cultural trends in Japan, technology as solution, and recommendations for the application of technology. By analyzing the relationship between Japanese consumers and technological innovation, other countries businesses’ will be able to figure out the changes of market trends. Moreover, this paper will offer opportunities for how these technologies might possibly be applied to other countries while considering social and cultural differences.
The perspective regarding females in the accounting profession has changed within the past two decades, as women have created a strong presence in the accounting profession. Women struggle with the balance between work and personal life, as well as with the limits in advancement. As a result, firms have implemented “women/choice initiatives,” programs created by firms to offer female employees additional resources utilized as needed and at the discretion of the firm, to endorse the admission, growth, and full participation of women, as well as to promote gender diversity in the firm and the profession. Such programs have proven beneficial, as well as, detrimental for female accountants.
Research regarding female accountants who have benefited or suffered from the implementation of current “women/choice initiatives” has not been conducted heavily since the explosion of females entering the accounting field in the late 1970s. This paper will focus on certified public accountants in Texas affected by recent implementations by firms to assist with balancing work and life of female employees as of the mid-1990s.
Methodology used includes available statistical data from accounting publications and organizations such as The Journal of Accountancy and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), perspectives from personal experience as an intern in the profession, a survey of current accounting majors requesting their perspective of work/life balance based on their intended career, and survey of certified public accountants from four Texas metropolitan areas affected by the difficulty of balancing professional and personal life. The survey questioned the accountants’ job satisfaction and the effects of current “choice initiatives.” In addition, job satisfaction would include factors such as flexibility offered by firms to maintain a family, response to unexpected personal issues, and overall responses to management. The findings are intended to benefit employers and practitioners, as well as new accountants as the information may encourage the awareness of work/life balance issues in the accounting profession.
Searching for the Point of No Return
The diplomatic relations between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization worsened after the Oslo Accords in 1993, which settled the First Intifada (Palestinians uprising against Israelis) and was believed to become the foundation toward the conflict resolution. The Second Intifada eventually broke in 2000. Many factors contributed to the collapse of the peace talk. Those include the issues with the accords themselves, Israel's delays in the settlement withdrawal from the occupied Palestinian territories, Israeli religious extremists' activities and settlers' violence against Palestinians, and suicide bombings against Israelis by Palestinian organizations. In this presentation, while assessing relative importance of those factors, I will pay a particular attention to one factor, whose effects have traditionally been underestimated. I will explore the hypothesis that the PLO's failure to condemn the suicide bombings significantly da! maged the peace talk.
Unit Curriculum for 6th Grade Texas Students: Introduction to Arab Culture
This curriculum focuses on educating sixth graders about the geography, history, culture, and politics of the Arab World. It aims to have students think critically and be open-minded when encountering another culture. Classes teaching students more about other cultures have become increasingly necessary with the phenomena of globalization that is occurring today. Currently students are not receiving enough information about the history and culture about other parts of our world, which is quickly becoming more intertwined. This unit focuses on Arab culture, which is a vital part of the world today. The politics, conflicts, and resources in the Arab world are of increasing importance to the United States, and therefore our future citizens should be more educated about the region.
Risha Patel, Gabrielle Timmins, and Chi Nguyen
Value of Bat Subsidy Effects of Non-Cave Ecosystems
There have been very few studies done on aquatic cave ecosystems and the influences of guano on the ecology and fitness of these organisms. Due to foraging and feeding at night by bats, guano is distributed over areas outside of cave systems. But there has been limited research done on the effects of guano on aquatic systems outside of these caves. Bat guano is a great resource of nutrients for plants and variety of organisms because it contains high levels of nutrients. Nutrients are important for plants because it is a limiting factor for the soil, essential for growth and survival. To accomplish this, we monitored the growth rate change of crayfish and leaf decomposition rates in varying amounts of guano. Four replications were produced in a time span of four weeks using, 18 crayfish, Procambarus sp., 9 aquariums, guano collected from Braken Bat Cave in Texas, and dry leaves collected from San Marcos, TX. 9 different aquatic enviro! nments were equally allocated with 5 pounds of dry leaves for habitat and additional nourishment, rocks, water, and 2 crayfish each. Each environment had varying amounts of guano pellets of 0 (the control), 3, and 9. Though we had a wide range of results it shed light on the nitrous influence on systems that are not isolated by the typical ecology of a cave ecosystem. It was determined using a single factor ANOVA that no influence was seen meaning there was no significant crayfish growth due to the different amounts of guano.
Effect of Different Food Types on Survival and Growth of House Crickets (Acheta domesticus)
For an organism to grow it requires increased amounts of nutrition, which includes nitrogen, phosphorous, proteins, and varying carbohydrates. There are varying amounts of nutrition gained as an organism moves up in a food web; usually these levels of essential components decrease the higher the trophic level. The objective of the experiment was to see how much of an effect of different food types had on cricket biomass with also the proportion of food eaten. Three different treatments of food types were done on common house crickets, Acheta domesticus, to determine whether a significant change in body mass could be seen. The three treatments were (1) leaf litter only, (2) fish only, (3) fish and leaf litter, each with five replicates each. The crickets were measured in length and weight before and after each experimental period from September through October. The results determined that crickets in the leaf only treatment died from malnutrition while crickets from the other two treatments doubled and tripled in biomass. A conclusion found from these results is that for the omnivorous house cricket survival on primary producers alone is not enough. From these results further studies can be made. For example can these results be representative for all omnivores or is this result only for certain arthropods?
Stephanie Schlacks, Kelly Haskard, Harvey Ginsburg, and Anna Williams
A Natural Observation of Staff-Patient Interactions at a Psychiatric Hospital
Research shows the importance of communication between staff and patients at mental health facilities. Learning to communicate effectively with fragile populations is a learned skill that requires much training and rehearsal. Staffing ratios also play an important role in effectively interacting with patients to maximize every meeting. Improvements in quality of interactions, with the correct quantity (enabled by the right ratio of staff:patients), will lead to more frequent and successful discharges. Methods: Researcher conducted 51 ten minute observations of staff-patient interactions at a state psychiatric hospital using the Staff-Resident Interaction Chronograph. Results will show how staff are performing and where improvements are needed. Comparisons will be made between three units. Staffing ratios will be compared to scores on observation chart.
Unlike mammals, fish and amphibians exhibit remarkable regenerative properties of the central nervous system. This study focused on the differences in gene expression involved in optic nerve injury and the severing of muscle tissue (sham operated) surrounding the eye of Danio rerio (zebrafish). Due to its multiple abilities to heterodimerize and its ambiguous effects in nerve regeneration and cell death, c-jun was chosen as our gene of interest in order to gain insight on its effects on post optic nerve injury. Based on previous studies, it was hypothesized that expression of c-jun would show a significant increase in fish that suffered injury to the optic nerve compared to those that only underwent peripheral tissue damage. Following an RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis with retro transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantification of c-jun expression was determined by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR). A two way independent samples analysis of variance was carried out in order to determine whether there were significant differences in gene expression after 3 hours, 24 hours and 168 hours after injury between sham operated and optic nerve injured fish. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) between sham operated and optic nerve injured were shown at 24 hours and at 168 hours. There was a significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of c-jun in optic nerve injury and sham operated between each time period except for 3 hours and 168 hours. The significant differences in expression of c-jun corroborated past studies (Saul; Veldman et al., 2007, Herdegen et al., 1993) and demonstrated that c-jun is significantly up-regulated in optic nerve injury compared to sham operated at certain time points.
Abstract unavailable (Honors thesis supervised by Professor Kathleen Peirce, Department of English)
Dirty Rags of the "Dark Ages"
The clothing of the Middle Ages, or "Dark Ages", specifically of 14th century France, was not as "dark" and "dirty" as it is commonly assumed. This research will show the general perception of a commoner in the Middle Ages and the reality of commoner attire. It will also explain the reasons why people have come to believe the misconception of dress during this period.