1. Erikson described independence as an important issue in the second year of life and identified this stage of development as A. autonomy versus shame and doubt. B. concrete operations versus object permanence. C. motor versus mind development. D. self versus other differentiation.
3. According to Rogers, accurate empathy is most appropriately defined as A. objective reflection to help identify the client's feelings. B. non-judgmental acceptance of the client's reality. C. recognition of the client's most prominent emotions. D. subjective understanding of the client in the here-and-now.
4. A group leader can best enhance a group member's participation by A. encouraging social interactions between members outside of group time. B. requiring a commitment that group members not drop out. C. stressing that substantial self-disclosure is expected. D. modeling appropriate behaviors for the group.
5. A basic assumption of the trait-and-factor approach to vocational counseling is that A. career decisions should be based on evident needs. B. personality and work environment are synonymous. C. developmental constructs are of paramount importance. D. there is one best career goal for everyone.
6. A primary benefit of converting raw scores to standard scores is that it facilitates A. simplicity in interpretation of test results. B. interpretation of the results relative to a normal distribution. C. summarizing and organizing other qualitative data. D. statistical analyses having greater quantitative accuracy.
7. The research design which manipulates the independent variable and a between-conditions comparison with no random assignment of subjects to conditions is know as A. quasi-experimental. B. single-subject. C. time-series. D. true experimental.
8. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, members of the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) became aware that the words personnel and guidance did not accurately define or reflect their work. Therefore, in 1983 APGA changed its name to the A. Association for Counselor Education and Supervision B. American Association for Counseling and Development C. American Mental Health Counselors Association D. Association of Counseling and Related Educational Professions